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Anglais Term
B1/ B2

Sous la direction de
Jean-Louis HABERT
Romain BERLIER, Agrégé d’anglais
Lycée Joffre, Montpellier
Formateur
Marina GUIBERT, Agrégée d’anglais
Lycée privé d’Alzon, Nîmes
Jean-Louis HABERT
Agrégé d’anglais, Docteur en linguistique
Montpellier
Martine HOYET, Certifiée d’anglais
Lycée Albert Camus, Nîmes

Fiona RATKOFF, Agrégée d’anglais
Académie de Nantes
Joanna WISTREICH, Certifiée d’anglais
Lycée Alphonse Daudet, Nîmes

NEW

Philippe MONTEIRO, Agrégé d’anglais
Lycée Joffre, Montpellier

Introduction

03

1

Heroes and Legends

05

2

Nobody’s Perfect

17

3

The Grass is Greener

29

4

Living Together

43

5

Under the Influence

55

6

Where Power Lies

68

7

Moving On?

81

8

Tomorrow’s World

93

Lecture suivie

105

Fiches méthodologiques

109

– Rédiger un dialogue
– Écrire une lettre
– Rédiger un article de presse
– Les procédés de traduction

Couverture : USA, Washington, D.C., Capitol Building at night (selective focus).
Toutes les références à des sites Internet présentées dans cet ouvrage ont été vérifiées attentivement à la date d’impression. Compte tenu de la
volatilité des sites et du détournement possible de leur adresse, les éditions Belin ne peuvent en aucun cas être tenues pour responsables de leur
évolution. Nous appelons donc chaque utilisateur à rester vigilant quant à leur utilisation.
Le code de la propriété intellectuelle n’autorise que « les copies ou reproductions strictement réservées à l’usage privé du copiste et non destinées à une
utilisation collective » [article L. 122-5] ; il autorise également les courtes citations effectuées dans un but d’exemple ou d’illustration. En revanche « toute
représentation ou reproduction intégrale ou pa tielle, sans le consentement de l’auteur ou de ses ayants droit ou ayants cause, est
illicite » [article L. 122-4]. La loi 95-4 du 3 janvier 1994 a confié au C.F.C. (Centre français de l’exploitation du droit de copie, 20, rue des
Grands Augustins, 75006 Paris), l’exclusivité de la gestion du droit de reprographie. Toute photocopie d’œuvres protégées, exécutée
sans son accord préalable, constitue une contrefaçon sanctionnée par les articles 425 et suivants du Code pénal.
© Éditions Belin, 2012

ISBN 978-2-7011-6236-2

Introduction

Le but que nous avons poursuivi en construisant New On Target
Terminale est décrit dans le détail page 2 du manuel de l’élève.
Outre la volonté de répondre aux exigences du programme
culturel du cycle terminal et de la démarche actionnelle recommandée par les textes officiels depuis déjà plusieurs années, ce
nouveau manuel de terminale se devait de prendre en compte
l’évolution des épreuves du baccalauréat qui seront mises en
place dès la session 2013.

Le nouveau bac : l’épreuve écrite
L’épreuve écrite n’a pas subi de transformation radicale si ce
n’est l’apparente disparition de la traduction qui était traditionnellement classée dans la partie « compréhension de l’écrit » et
qui recevait une plus grande place dans les épreuves destinées
aux sections littéraires que dans celles réservées aux sections
S et ES. En conséquence, la partie « examen blanc » (dernière
double page de chaque chapitre : mock exam) du manuel ne propose pas d’exercice de traduction.
En revanche, nous avons accordé une attention toute particulière au choix et à la longueur des textes et avons veillé à ce que
leur contenu soit en rapport étroit avec la thématique de chaque
chapitre afin que les élèves puissent utiliser dans cette épreuve
les connaissances acquises durant l’étude des divers supports
dudit chapitre.
Comme les textes officiels le recommandent, chaque épreuve
est divisée en deux parties (compréhension de l’écrit et expression écrite) valant chacune 10 points. Nous avons organisé
les questions de compréhension en deux niveaux : celles qui
relèvent d’une compréhension plus globale du contenu exigible
au niveau B1, communes aux élèves de LV1 et de LV2, et celles
plus spécialement destinées au niveau B2 et aux élèves de LV1
(voir p. 22 et 23 du BO n° 43 du 24 novembre 2011).
Nous avons procédé de la même façon pour ce qui est de la partie expression écrite : deux sujets sont proposés pour les LV2
avec une exigence de niveau B1. Ils sont accompagnés de la
consigne Do both tasks et la longueur de l’ensemble est, à titre
indicatif, de 300 mots. Le premier sujet est du type narratif et le
second davantage orienté vers l’argumentation construite.
Pour les candidats de LV1, deux sujets sont également proposés : au choix, l’un des deux sujets imposés aux LV2 et un
second développement (à choisir parmi au moins deux sujets)
dans lequel le candidat doit montrer son aptitude à argumenter
de façon nuancée (voir p. 23 du BO n° 43 du 24 novembre 2011).
La longueur totale des deux sujets LV1 est à titre indicatif de 350
à 450 mots.

Le nouveau bac : les épreuves orales
Rappelons que la partie orale de l’examen est obligatoire pour
les sections ES, S, STI2D, STD2A, STG, STS2S et STL. Elle est divisée en une épreuve de compréhension orale et une épreuve
d’expression orale (voir p. 24 du BO n° 43 du 24 novembre 2011).
Elles seront administrées en classe.

La compréhension de l’oral
Dans New On Target Terminale, les élèves y sont plus spécifiquement préparés dans les troisièmes doubles pages de chaque
chapitre, et en particulier sur la page de droite sur laquelle des
sujets de compréhension et d’expression en relation avec la thématique de chaque chapitre leur sont proposés accompagnés
de conseils, d’un guidage méthodologique selon la nature du
support (monologue, dialogue, interview, discussion, etc.) et
d’une aide lexicale ciblée pour ce qui concerne la première des
deux épreuves. Ils y sont préparés à prendre des notes afin de
les réutiliser efficacement lors du compte rendu (en français)
qu’ils doivent faire de ce qu’ils ont entendu et compris. Ils sont
également invités à travailler à deux et à s’auto- ou s’inter-évaluer à l’aide de la fiche téléchargeable (marking file 1) qui est
une synthèse de celles qui seront utilisées par les professeurs
le jour de l’examen (voir p. 28 et 29 du BO n° 43 du 24 novembre
2011).

L’expression orale
Pour ce qui concerne l’épreuve d’expression orale, elle aussi
administrée en classe selon les modalités détaillées dans le
BO cité supra, nous avons mis en place un entraînement (Talk
about the theme) qui reprend la philosophie de l’épreuve et est
constitué de questions visant à stimuler l’inspiration des candidats au cas où celle-ci viendrait à manquer. Cette partie est
accompagnée d’une aide lexicale ciblée et d’une seconde fiche
d’évaluation (marking file 2), destinée spécifiquement au professeur qui voudra chiffrer la performance des élèves. Cette
fiche est, elle aussi, inspirée des modèles que l’on trouvera dans
le BO du 24 novembre 2011 p. 32 et 33. Ces deux fiches pourront
être reproduites et adaptées à chaque fois que les professeurs
souhaiteront évaluer la compréhension ou l’expression orales
lors de l’utilisation des supports audio et vidéo utilisés dans le
manuel et en particulier dans la partie « Ateliers ».
Ajoutons qu’un CD supplémentaire d’entraînement à la compréhension orale est proposé (www.editions-belin.com ; code
produit : 006383). Il contient des extraits audio spécialement
conçus pour l’épreuve de compréhension dont chacun dure 90
secondes, conformément aux recommandations du BO.

Les corrigés

L’épreuve orale de langue obligatoire en série L

Nous avons choisi, dans les corrigés d’examens blancs, de ne
pas nous substituer, dans la partie expression écrite, à l’expression des élèves. En revanche, les réponses concernant la partie
« compréhension de l’écrit » sont traitées dans le détail. Nous
n’avons pas proposé de barème puisque nous invitons les collègues à choisir les questions à poser selon le niveau de leur
public ou la section à laquelle ils appartiennent (bac général ou
bac technologique).

Elle est préparée dans toutes les pages qui s’appuient sur des
supports audio ou vidéo, qu’il s’agisse de ceux proposés sur la
page de gauche de la troisième double page de chaque chapitre
ou des activités d’expression proposées dans les pages « Ateliers » et plus généralement partout où le travail en interaction
est mis en oeuvre (Interact, Teamwork, etc.). Les performances
des élèves peuvent être chiffrées en utilisant les fiches que l’on
trouvera dans le BO n° 43 p. 30 et 31.
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

3

LELE et anglais approfondi
Les élèves peuvent s’entraîner à l’épreuve orale de langue
vivante approfondie en série L à l’aide des neufs textes de lectures suivies qui leur sont proposés en fin de manuel et qui
reprennent tous l’un des quatre thèmes majeurs du programme
culturel terminal. Avec chaque texte, les élèves sont invités à
construire un dossier qu’ils présenteront ensuite au professeur.
Ainsi, la partie Build up your dossier du manuel a-t-elle été conçue
pour aider les élèves à construire et organiser des connaissances plus générales sur l’auteur et son œuvre, la période littéraire à laquelle le texte se rattache, les œuvres littéraires du
même genre et/ou la (les) thématique(s) développée(s) dans
ce type d’œuvres. Cette préparation servira à l’élève pour présenter le passage sur lequel il devra s’exprimer et pour le replacer dans le cadre littéraire qui est le sien.
Toutes ces activités peuvent également être utilisées pour les
élèves préparant l’épreuve orale obligatoire de littérature
étrangère en langue étrangère (LELE). L’évaluation de ces
épreuves peut être menée à l’aide des fiches contenues dans le
BO déjà cité p. 30, 31 et 34.

Les corrigés
Les corrigés des activités proposées en lien avec les textes de la
partie « Lectures suivies » proposent des éléments de réponses
qui aideront les élèves à présenter le texte retenu.

Les fiches de travail
Toutes ces fiches – téléchargeables et rassemblées en fin de
fichier du livre du professeur en version imprimée – permettent
de faciliter la prise de notes, l’échange d’informations et d’enrichir les connaissances.
• wordfile 1a, wordfile 1b
Des fiches d’aide à la compréhension de l’écrit ou de l’oral, l’une
construite en français, l’autre en anglais pour répondre aux différences de niveaux des élèves auxquels les supports seront
proposés. Ces fiches sont annoncées par le cartouche Wordwork en seconde et troisième doubles pages de chaque chapitre.
• wordfile 2
Des fiches d’enrichissement du vocabulaire portant sur le
champ lexical correspondant au thème développé dans le support étudié. Ces fiches sont également annoncées par le cartouche Wordwork.
• teamfile
Des fiches de travail en groupes permettant la mise en place
d’une véritable interaction dans le cadre de la salle de classe à
partir des supports écrits et oraux des deuxièmes et troisièmes
doubles pages de chaque chapitre, rubrique Interact. Nous en
avons limité le nombre à quatre par type de support.

4

Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

• marking file
Voir ci-dessus, « Le nouveau bac : les épreuves orales ».
• dvdfile
Des fiches pour guider, voire vérifier, la compréhension orale des
supports vidéo proposés dans les ateliers d’entraînement à la
compréhension de l’oral ou certaines pages « Magazine/compétence culturelle ».
• artfile
Des fiches d’enrichissement des connaissances culturelles
et artistiques en relation avec les oeuvres présentées sur les
pages « Art and Society/Histoire des arts » (sixième double
page de chaque chapitre).

Les corrigés des fiches
Les corrigés de toutes ces fiches figurent bien évidemment dans
ce fichier. Afin de ne pas trop mâcher le travail de synthèse des
élèves lors de la phase de mise en commun des informations ou
opinions recueillies lors de la partie interactive du cours, nous
n’avons pas proposé de fiches spécifiques.

Les fiches méthodologiques
Nous proposons également, à la fin de ce fichier, des fiches méthodologiques :
– rédiger un dialogue ;
– rédiger un article de presse ;
– écrire une lettre ;
– les procédés de traduction.

La traduction
Malgré la disparition de la traduction à l’épreuve écrite, il nous a
semblé néanmoins indispensable de conserver dans les pages
du manuel des passages réservés à l’entraînement à la traduction, et en particulier à la version. On trouvera cet entraînement
sur la seconde double page de chacun des huit chapitres.
En outre, certains des exercices proposés dans les pages réservées à la réflexion sur la langue (Language Corner) sont également des exercices de version (parfois de thème) portant sur
des points de langue qui posent souvent beaucoup de difficultés
aux jeunes « traducteurs ».
En conséquence, les corrigés proposés dans le fichier pédagogique ont été conçus pour aider les professeurs à faire assimiler
à leurs élèves un certain nombre de procédés de traduction que
nous avons détaillés dans les fiches mentionnées plus haut.
Nos corrigés n’ont évidemment pas valeur de modèles figés, et
restent des propositions de traduction, sachant que cet exercice
implique toujours, à un moment ou à un autre, de trancher parmi
plusieurs options possibles.

livre du professeur

1 Heroes and Legends
Pages d’ouverture

(p. 12-13)
(p. 13)

Corrigé

(exemples)
Picture 1 is Wonder Woman, a superheroine created in 1941. She
has superhuman strength, speed and agility and, by lassooing
people, she can make them tell the truth. Her bracelets are
indestructible and her tiara can be used as a weapon. Although
dressed very sexily, she was originally designed as a feminist
figure whose aim was to achieve peace, harmony and equality
between peoples and between the sexes.
Picture 2 is of two firemen/firefighters, advancing with a hose
into the heart of a fire. Although they are wearing helmets and
have oxygen tanks, their job is extremely dangerous and often
calls for great bravery. Most Americans remember that, on 9/11,
343 firefighters lost their lives.
Picture 3 is Oscar Pistorius, a South African runner who has
prosthetic legs from the knee downwards. Not content with
breaking world records in competitions for disabled athletes, he
has also taken part in competitions for able-bodied athletes and
has created a lot of controversy because he can run faster than
most able-bodied people can.
Picture 4 is the late Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple, inventor,
businessman and visionary. His determination to put electronic
devices on the market that were as much works of art as
machines led to the iMac, iPod, iPhone and iPad.
Picture 5 is a painting, St George and the Dragon, by Edward
Coley Burne-Jones, done in 1866. The legend, which probably
originated in Lebanon, tells of a man who saved a princess
from being eaten by a dragon and then made all the people in
the kingdom convert to Christianity after he killed the beast.
St George became popular in England during the Crusades
and became patron saint of the English monarchy in the 14th
century. The flag of St George (a red cross on a white background)
is one of the component parts of the Union Jack and has become
a strong symbol for nationalist movements in England.
(students’ own answers)

I-way to Heaven

(p. 14-15)
(p. 14)

Corrigé

It is a play on words with Highway to Heaven – the title of a
popular 1980s American TV series, replacing Highway by I-way,
a reference to the names of Apple products (iPhone, iPad, iPod,
iMac...). Everything becomes an “i-thing” with Steve Jobs that
even his death is related to Apple.
The first picture is an advertisment featuring Steve Jobs (as
a young man who has just launched his company). He is shown
offering an apple to the viewer, just as Eve offered an apple to

Adam in the Bible. He is asking us to yield to temptation, that is
to say buy an Apple product rather than something produced
by any other computer company. The implication is that the
pleasure will be intense, almost sinful. And, just as in the case of
original sin, once you have bitten it, there will be no going back.
(Note that the apple also figures in the story of Snow White as an
object of temptation.) The second picture is the cover of the July,
26th 2004 issue of Newsweek magazine. The headline is based
on a pun on the translation of Descartes’ famous phrase cogito
ergo sum: I think therefore I am. The “slogan” in the headline
suggests that one cannot live without an iPod.
There are several possible explanations:
– For the initial logo, in 1976, Jobs chose a picture of Sir Isaac
Newton with an apple about to fall on his head (and thereby
enable him to formulate the laws of gravity). Jobs often compared
his situation to Newton’s, since they both had problems getting
their ideas accepted.
– The apple is a symbol of lust and knowledge, i.e. the strong
desire for knowledge. Combined with the colours of the rainbow,
this is an oblique reference to hippie culture, a subject dear to
Jobs’s heart.
– The Beatles had chosen the name Apple for their record label.
(This ended in a long dispute over brand ownership.)
(p. 14)
Corrigé

The tone used is laudatory. The biographer writes very highly
of Steve Jobs’s achievements and expresses deep admiration
for him although he seems to have a few reservations with
regard to his “controversial management style”.
(students’ own answers)
Some of the terms (“legend”, “revolutionize”, “his place in
history”, “stature’...) and the repeated use of superlatives make
the description seem exaggerated.
This expression means that the company had the same
characteristics as Jobs himself: his creation resembled him;
it was his exact reflection. The Economist stresses the inner
contradictions within Steve Jobs and points out that his
personality could not simply be grafted onto his company; they
kept their own characteristics. However, the journalist uses
a forensic metaphor rather similar to the DNA metaphor in the
Economist article: “Every iPhone or MacBook has his fingerprints
all over it” meaning that Steve Jobs lived through his creations.
According to the biography, “Combining art and technology,
beauty and processing power [...] Apple is at the crossroads of
art and technology.” For The Economist, “he was obsessed with
product design and aesthetics.” The aesthetic beauty attained
by Apple designers gave them the advantage over their main
rivals. The Economist insists on this aesthetic dimension,
whereas the biography also mentions the technological aspect.
Steve Jobs had an eventful life with many twists and turns,
ups and downs – perfect material for a film, especially now that
one of the current trends is for biopics. After all, a movie was
made recently about the life of Mark Zuckerberg, the founder of
Facebook and was very successful.
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

5

1 Heroes and Legends
He is made out to be rather a megalomaniac and very
autocratic and authoritarian in his dealings with his employees.
He did not always behave in the “cool” way he was thought
to behave. He is shown as a man who never accepted vague
approximations or uncertainty, and who put a lot of pressure on
his staff.
(p. 14)
Corrigé
Les deux propositions d’expression écrite n’ont rien de
comparable. Nous conseillons, par exemple, de « faire plancher »
les élèves en classe ou à la maison sur le premier sujet indiqué.
Il s’agira bien évidemment d’utiliser à bon escient le travail
réalisé en amont autour de cette double page du manuel pour
développer leur opinion – imposée certes par l’intitulé du sujet,
mais qui constitue un bon exercice à la défense d’un point de
vue. On pourra les inciter également à utiliser des formules
superlatives et exclamatives et adverbes afin de donner plus de
poids à leur démonstration.
Insistons également sur l’originalité et éventuellement sur
l’humour et la légèreté à apporter à ce type de composition pour
sortir des sentiers battus et susciter l’intérêt du correcteur.
Concernant le deuxième sujet, il s’agit clairement d’un travail de
recherche et de compilation de type empirique.
WORDWORK

(p. 14)

Corrigé
wordfile-p14-1a/1b
A. 1. launch, 2. start-up (company), 3. (look at) the big picture,
4. manage to, 5. lasting, 6. carry forward, 7. according to,
8. infuse, 9. likely, 10. crossroads.
B. 1/a, 2/b, 3/c, 4/b, 5/a, 6/b.
wordfile-p14-2
A. An entrepreneur is someone who creates and runs a business.
He or she may remain the sole owner of the enterprise, or
may decide to go into partnership with someone else. Most
entrepreneurs like to retain control of their creations and be the
ones who decide on company policy.
B. business, enterprise, company.
C. 1/d, 2/g, 3/c, 4/e, 5/f, 6/a, 7/b.
D. 1. funds, 2. costs, 3. returns, 4. running.
(p. 15)
Corrigé
teamfile-p15-1
A. 1. a. he was [...] the orchestrator of invention
b. he could see the big picture
c. he pushed [those innovations]
2 a. with relentless energy
b. by creating [...] a company with lasting market power [...]
filled with creative designers and daredevil engineers who will
carry forward his vision
c. his place in history/working with him was both infuriating and
an inspiration
d. an entrepreneur of the same stature as Henry Ford/the
greatest business executive of our time
6

Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

e. working with him was both infuriating and an inspiration
3. Legend, innovations, revolutionize.
4. Long-lasting, creative, artistic, technologically-advanced,
beautiful, aesthetic, powerful.
5. Creativitiy, inventiveness, resilience, perfectionism, good
design.
6. Legend.
7. Both were at the origin of revolutionary concepts that
changed people’s ways of life. Both were also extremely
resilient in hostile environments.
teamfile-p15-2
A. 1. (lines 1-4) “The Steve Jobs story is the stuff of legend: from
tinkering about with electronics in a garage to launching a startup, to creating one of the world’s most successful companies.”
This passage shows an evolution from the bottom up.
2. Computing, telecommunications, music, publishing, retailing
(+ others that are not mentioned).
3. “creative designers and daredevil engineers who will carry
forward his vision”
4. Art, design, technology, technical perfection (which have
brought success).
5. Technologically innovative, creative, beautiful, aesthetic,
powerful, technically perfect...
6. “the cutthroat world of high-tech”
7. (students’ own answers)
Leur demander de prendre l’exemple d’un produit Apple qu’ils
possèdent ou connaissent bien.
8. (students’ own answers)
Travail à la maison ou dans le cadre d’un travail en salle
informatique
teamfile-p15-3
A. 1. He was not an engineer.
2. Product design and aesthetics, making advanced technology
simple to use.
3. Taking half-formed ideas and showing how to achieve them.
4. A hippie, a rebel, an outcast.
5. “[he] ended up being hailed by many of those corporate giants
as one of the greatest chief executives of his time.”
6. Showmanship, strategic vision, attention to detail, a specific
management style.
7. Dictatorial/autocratic with his employees.
8. Fall from grace, period in the wilderness.
9. (examples) “an inspiration to any businessperson
[...]”/“revived the ailing company he had co-founded and turned
it into the world’s biggest tech firm”/“the fanatical loyalty he
managed to inspire in customers”/“Many Apple users feel
themselves to be part of a community with Mr Jobs as its leader.”
10. Combining emotion and computer technology.
11. All Apple devices bear their creator’s mark/are branded with
his touch.
12. (students’ own answers)
Travail à la maison ou dans le cadre d’un travail en salle
informatique
teamfile-p15-4
A. 1. (Lines 59-61) Not much is said about this. (students’ own
research)

livre du professeur

2. Jobs was ousted from Apple and founded another company
(NeXT) later, ironically, to be acquired by Apple in 1996, which
brought Jobs back to the company he originally co-founded! The
magazine is not explicit about it.
3. Apple lost its hold on the marketplace. We know because it is
called “ailing“.
4. Taking advantage of the disagreements and rivalries at the
head of the company, Microsoft “outsmarted” Apple.
5. It has become “the world’s biggest tech firm”: huge success,
better results than Microsoft.
6. Close links, loyalty, confidence, a “personal link”.
7. Bumper stickers (a form of unpaid advertising), the sense of
belonging to a community.
TRANSLATOR’S WORKSHOP

(p. 14)
Corrigé
En tant que technologue, M. Jobs était différent parce qu’il
n’était pas ingénieur et c’était là sa grande force. Son obsession,
bien plus orientée vers le design des produits et l’esthétique,
était aussi de rendre une technologie avancée simple à utiliser.
À plusieurs reprises, il s’est emparé d’une idée existante mais
non-aboutie (l’ordinateur commandé par la souris, le lecteur
de musique numérisée, le téléphone intelligent, la tablette
numérique) et a montré au monde informatique comment
construire tout cela correctement.
[...] Dans le vaste monde des affaires, cet homme qui aimait se
considérer comme un hippie en révolte permanente contre les
grandes sociétés a fini salué par de nombreux de ces mêmes
géants comme l’un des plus grands chefs d’entreprise de son
époque.

PROJECT

(p. 15)
Ce projet initialement proposé à des groupes de 5 élèves
pourrait être organisé avec des groupes de 7 voire 8 élèves, ce
qui permettrait à chaque « jury » de faire passer cet entretien
d’embauche à plusieurs candidats et de faire son choix à l’issue
de ces entretiens.
Ainsi, un debriefing comparatif pourrait être réalisé à l’issue
de l’activité, la rendant encore plus interactive. Le travail de
préparation implique l’élaboration de questions crédibles, plus
ou moins complexes et axées sur le profil et la personnalité des
candidats, et, pour les candidats, la préparation de réponses
afin de ne pas se laisser déstabiliser par les questionneurs,
comme dans « la vraie vie », en somme. Chaque participant
devra également réfléchir à son attitude au cours de
l’entretien, sa tenue, ainsi que ses positionnements physique
et idéologique.
Les candidats devront faire leur possible pour mettre en avant
leurs qualités et leurs atouts, les « intervieweurs » cherchant
souvent à les piéger, en tout cas à les pousser dans leurs
retranchements.

Giving it Away

(p. 16)
(p. 16)

Corrigé

The man is Bill Gates, co-founder of Microsoft and one of the
world’s most generous philanthropists.
The cartoon is referring to both men’s involvement in
philanthropy: the old lady represents the world and the men
supporting her are a metaphor for the large sums of money they
give to charity.
The scene depicts a rich woman giving money to a beggar.
This is the same idea, on a smaller scale, as Gates and Buffet
giving money to help the poor.
Philanthropy refers to a particular person giving money
away whereas charity is a more general concept, often
embodied in an institution, of helping others in need through
various activities.
(p. 16)
Script
tapescript1-p16
WOMAN: Welcome to Points of View. Our guest this afternoon
is Keith Waterman, a sociologist and writer who has just
published a book called Make Money by Giving it Away,
which, despite its rather flippant title, is in fact quite a
serious look at philanthropy these days. Keith, perhaps you
could tell us about it.
MAN: Yes, well it all began when I was doing some research into
respect for authority and the cult of personality – how things
in the Western world have changed radically over the last 50
years or so. If you look at the way people in authority are now
fair game for any sort of attack by the press...
WOMAN: You mean corruption charges and sex scandals and...
MAN: Yes, all that used to be forbidden territory.
WOMAN: All swept under the carpet.
MAN: Yes. Not any more of course.
WOMAN: We no longer look up to our betters the way we used to.
MAN: No. Well, it depends how you define “betters”. It used to be
people higher up the social scale than you are. But that idea
has gone completely out of the window.
WOMAN: So who are the people we look up to as role models these
days?
MAN: Basically, they are people who have made a lot of money
through their own business acumen or some exceptional
talent for doing something. And if you add to that a social
conscience...
WOMAN: Like Bill Gates, you mean. Giving all that money to
charity...
MAN: Yes, exactly. Philanthropists like him are among the most
respected people around today.
WOMAN: But you say in the book that philanthropy is not just
giving money away.
MAN: No, not at all. Take the example of Jeff Skoll. He made a great
deal of money...
WOMAN: From eBay, right?
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

7

1 Heroes and Legends
MAN: Yes, he was one of its cofounders. As I say, he made a lot of
money which enabled him to set up a film company which
only makes films with a social message.
WOMAN: That’s all very well, as long as it’s not just some sort of
publicity stunt...
MAN: Not at all. He keeps a very low profile, so a lot of his
philanthropic work simply isn’t talked about in the media.
And, thanks to his fortune, he can promote and finance
social entrepreneurship.
WOMAN: Social entrepreneurship? Now, you see, when I hear
words like that, I think to myself: here we are, another
buzzword, another bit of meaningless jargon. Adding “social”
to the name of a business isn’t going to convince me that a
company has a heart of gold. It’s just a marketing gimmick.
MAN: No, you’re wrong there. Social entrepreneurship is about
changing things.
WOMAN: Are you telling me it’s nothing to do with making money?
MAN: No, I’m not saying that. Profit is involved but it’s not the main
objective. Look, last year I went to the annual World Forum of
Jeff Skoll’s foundation. It was packed with business people
talking about gaps in the market and business ideas...
WOMAN: Just like any other business conference...
MAN: No. The purpose of it all was to analyse how the proposed
business ideas could help to lift people out of poverty. Some
of the participants were investors who help finance small
and medium-sized businesses in Africa or South America.
One company had developed a low-cost pump which was
helping millions of farmers in developing countries to irrigate
their land.
WOMAN: Oh, come on. Helping them at a price. Even if you sell your
product cheaply, you are selling to millions of people. It’s just
good business sense.
MAN: Yes, but the main aim is to develop innovative solutions to
bring about social change. Making a profit is a secondary
outcome. Skoll agrees he’s a capitalist but says he has two
bottom lines: one shows the financial gain, the other the
social gain.
WOMAN: So, unlike the normal philanthropist who just gives his
money away, Skoll makes it into more.
MAN: Yes, exactly.
Corrigé

d. social entrepreneurs
Keith Waterman. Sociologist and writer. Just published a
book entitled Making Money by Giving it Away.
Bill Gates, co-founder of Microsoft; Jeff Skoll, co-founder of
eBay. The former built up the most powerful software corporation
that ever existed, the latter created the greatest online auction
site.
Bill Gates has given money away to charity. Jeff Skoll has
set up a film company that makes films with a social message.
To bring about social change. A social entrepreneur is
someone who sets up profit-making businesses that also take
social benefit into account.
She says that social entrepreneurs are only out to make
money.
8

Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

(p. 16)
Corrigé
If I had a lot of money, I would definitely want to use some of
it to help people less well-off than me. I think homeless people
are the white elephant of our society and that we shouldn’t allow
people to live in complete poverty in our so-called developed
countries.
My initial thought would be to give a huge sum to a particular
charity, but I would be worried about not knowing exactly what
use was made of it. Therefore I would rather set up my own
charity. One way I could do this would be by buying a large
house and converting it into a hostel. It would put up homeless
people free of charge and provide free meals. Not only that, but
I could also employ some homeless people to work in the hostel
as either cooks or cleaners. This would be a way of getting these
people back into the job market and little by little into a more
stable way of life.
My only concern would be that the whole enterprise would not
be self-sustaining as it does not generate any revenue. This
means that it couldn’t be repeated elsewhere in the country
unless other large donors came forward. One possibility would
be to have everyone work as volunteers and make the hostel
grow its own vegetables. This would not solve the whole problem
but would alleviate some of the running costs. The rest of the
money would come from myself as well as private donations.
WORDWORK

(p. 16)

Corrigé
wordfile-p.16-1a
1/a, 2/c, 3/c, 4/a, 5/b, 6/c, 7/a, 8/c.
wordfile-p.16-1b
1/d, 2/f, 3/e, 4/j, 5/i, 6/a, 7/h, 8/g, 9/c, 10/b.
wordfile-p.16-2
A. 1/c, 2/d, 3/e, 4/b, 5/a.
B. 1. cash dispenser, withdraw, 2. currency, 3. borrow, loan,
4. tip, coins, 5. refund.
C. 1/e, 2/a, 3/d, 4/b, 5/f, 6/c.
(p. 16)
Corrigé
teamfile-p16-1
1. Keith Waterman. Sociologist. Make Money by Giving it Away.
2. Bill Gates; giving a lot of money to charity (or co-founding
Microsoft is probably what he is more famous for).
3. Philanthropist.
4. They feel a lot of respect.
5. Jeff Skoll, co-founder of eBay.
6. He has set up a film company that only makes films with a
social message.
7. No, “he keeps a very low profile”.
teamfile-p16-2
1. It is about philanthropists today, inspired by research into
respect for authority and the cult of the personality.

livre du professeur

2. They are often attacked by the press over corruption charges
and sex scandals.
3. Interviewer: “swept under the carpet”; interviewee: “it used to
be forbidden territory”.
4. People higher up the social scale.
5. People who have made a lot of money through their own
business acumen or exceptional talent and especially those who
also have a social conscience.
6. Business isn’t doing enough for society.
7. Social change – to lift people out of poverty.
teamfile-p16-3
1. Social entrepreneurship is about changing things
2. Profit is secondary, social gain is more important.
3. Gaps in the market and business ideas.
4. How business ideas can help lift people out of poverty.
5. Financing business in Africa or South America. One company
had developed a low-cost pump which was helping millions of
farmers in developing countries to irrigate their land.
6. Developing innovative solutions.
7. It’s not just about giving money away, it’s about making it into
more.
teamfile-p16-4
1. Flippant. It seems to lack seriousness.
2. No, she thinks the content is serious.
3. A publicity stunt.
4. She is skeptical. “buzzword”, “meaningless jargon”, and a
“marketing gimmick”.
5. No, she says it sounds just like any other business conference
6. It’s good business sense because it is selling a product to
millions of people.
7. b. she’s skeptical of them.

PRONUNCIATION

(p. 16)

Corrigé
A. The first voice is American, the second British.
Comments
In the American pronunciation of these words, they all have four
syllables and an almost equal double stress. In the (standard)
British pronunciation, only one syllable of each word is stressed
and the words are reduced to three syllables instead of four, one
syllable being so “contracted” that it disappears.
B.
aristocrat
Bernard
garage
laboratory
magazine
princess
Renaissance
research

American
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1

British
1
1
1
2
3
2
2
2

Beyond the Limits (p. 17)
Script
tapescript4-p17
WOMAN: Now for a story of cruel luck and incredible courage.
Just over two years ago, 17-year-old Bethany Hamilton was
well on her way toward a successful surfing career. But,
while catching some waves one morning in Hawaii with her
friend Greg, a 14-foot tiger shark attacked. Greg got panicstricken, lost his balance and was knocked unconscious by
his surfboard as he fell into the sea. Bethany realised she
had to do something if she was going to save her friend from
being eaten by the shark, so she got him back on his board
where he came to quite quickly and managed to surf back to
the shore. Unfortunately Bethany wasn’t as lucky: the shark
attacked a second time while she was still in the water and
tore her left arm off. Bethany survived and, since then, has
been acclaimed as a real heroine. Not only that but in 2010
she turned pro surfer. There has been a documentary made
based on her life and now a full-length feature film, Soul
Surfer, has been released. Ryan Cordell, our movie critic,
went to the Hollywood premiere last night. So, Ryan, what
did you think? This is obviously not just another surfing
movie, is it?
MAN: No indeed. It has to be said that this is a truly remarkable
story. This young woman, who was seriously disabled
because of her heroic action to save her best friend’s life, is
someone you don’t easily forget. I met her at the premiere
and I was so impressed by her. Even though it’s been a
couple of years since the accident and she is a household
name for surfers all over the world, she is still amazed that
she has become such an icon and role model for thousands
of young people.
WOMAN: I understand she does a lot of work to help other disabled
people.
MAN: Yes, that’s right. She insists that the movie, the documentary
and so on are not just about her and what she has achieved,
but it’s all about increasing awareness about disability,
making disabled people more visible...
WOMAN: Does she actually appear in the movie?
MAN: Yes, she does all the stunt work for the sequences after the
shark episode when we see her surfing with only one arm.
WOMAN: That must be... I don’t know, upsetting, disturbing... to see
that.
MAN: Maybe a little at first, but you soon hardly notice the fact
that she’s missing an arm. You accept it as... normal.
WOMAN: What is particularly surprising is that, after the accident,
she just got back on her surfboard and took up her career
again as if nothing had happened, competing alongside ablebodied surfers.
MAN: Yes, and that’s what really comes through in the movie: her
determination to do what she had always set out to do: to be
a professional surfer.
WOMAN: Wasn’t she scared of another shark attack?
MAN: Well, we talked about this and she said that what scared
her more was not being able to surf again. Surfing is her life.
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

9

1 Heroes and Legends
Listen and write a summary
Corrigé (exemple)
Bethany Hamilton, jeune prodige du surf, vit sa vie transformée,
lorsqu’à l’âge de 17 ans elle eut le bras arraché par un requin
après avoir secouru son ami Greg qui avait perdu l’équilibre
dans la panique qui avait suivi l’attaque du requin et avait
perdu connaissance, frappé de plein fouet par sa planche de
surf. Bethany réussit à le remettre sur sa planche et il réussit
à regagner la plage sans encombres. Bethany, elle, n’eut pas
cette chance. Cependant elle survécut et est même considérée
comme une authentique héroïne dans le milieu du surf, ayant
réussi à reprendre la compétition quelques semaines seulement
après sa sortie de l’hôpital. En 2010 elle devint professionnelle et
après un film documentaire qui lui a été consacré, un autre film
vient de sortir. Ryan Cordell, le critique de cinéma interviewé, a
assisté à l’avant-première la veille à Hollywood.
Il ne s’agit pas seulement d’un film sur le surf, mais d’un film sur
une histoire remarquable, un acte d’héroïsme. Ryan a rencontré
l’intéressée qui ne comprend toujours pas son statut de modèle
voire d’icône pour des milliers de jeunes.
Bethany insiste sur le fait que le film traite du handicap, milieu
dans lequel elle s’investit beaucoup afin de soulever une prise
de conscience sur le handicap et de rendre les handicapés plus
visibles. Dans le film elle n’apparait que dans les séquences
de surf après l’accident, où on la voit évoluer dans les rouleaux
avec son bras manquant. La journaliste s’en émeut, insinuant
le fait que ce doit être déroutant et bouleversant, mais Ryan
dit simplement que l’on finit par la voir comme une personne
normale évoluant au milieu des surfeurs professionnels. Le film
se concentre sur sa détermination à atteindre l’objectif qu’elle
s’était fixé avant l’accident : devenir professionnelle de surf.
Enfin, à la question de la peur qu’elle pourrait avoir d’une nouvelle
attaque de requin, sa réponse est très claire : sa plus grande peur
serait de ne plus pouvoir surfer car le surf c’est sa vie.

Talk about the theme
Corrigé
Plutôt qu’un corrigé qui pourrait correspondre à ce qu’un élève de
terminale pourrait produire, nous proposons quelques éléments
de méthodologie et de mise en œuvre de cette activité.
Cette partie est une préparation à l’épreuve d’expression orale
du baccalauréat que tous les candidats passeront quelle que
soit leur série. On peut imaginer travailler cette partie à la fin du
chapitre lorsque les élèves auront travaillé plusieurs aspects de
l’héroïsme d’hier et d’aujourd’hui afin de pouvoir répondre aux
questions posées dans le manuel, lesquelles ne sont qu’une
amorce de problématique, bien d’autres points pouvant être
soulevés.
Encourager les élèves à utiliser la boîte Words and Expressions
qui pourra leur permettre de trouver d’autres idées pour leur
prise de parole en continu.
Une méthodologie doit être mise en place dès le début de
l’année afin que les élèves prennent l’habitude de prendre des
notes : cinq minutes de préparation ne leur permettront pas
d’écrire des phrases complètes qu’ils pourraient lire par la suite.
Il convient de les entraîner à prendre des notes pour répondre
10 Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

aux questions posées : n’écrire que les mots importants (noms,
verbes, adjectifs), numéroter les idées, écrire un mot de liaison
devant chaque idée afin de soigner les transitions (mettre en
place un code tel que la première lettre du mot de liaison choisi :
ainsi ils écriront H pour However, B pour Besides, etc.).
Il faut que les élèves s’habituent à utiliser des expressions
idiomatiques qui rendront leur prise de parole plus naturelle et des
mots de liaison (voir la section méthodologie en fin de manuel).
Les élèves doivent donner leur point de vue et ne doivent pas
uniquement se concentrer sur les questions proposées mais
également élargir le débat en suggérant des contre-exemples, ou
en approfondissant une des idées qui leur paraît essentielle. Le
but est d’argumenter en s’appuyant sur des exemples concrets.

Language Corner

(p. 18-19)

Words ending in -ing
Corrigé
Observation/réflexion
Il s’agit bien sûr d’aider les élèves à y voir clair dans la forêt des
mots en –ing dans le double but d’accéder à la compréhension
des énoncés qui les contiennent puis dans la maîtrise de leurs
emplois.
1. tinkering : gérondif, complément circonstanciel (suit une
préposition) ; 2. computing, publishing, retailing : noms, COD
(de affected) ; 3. creating : gérondif, complément de moyen ;
4. lasting : adj. verbal, épithète (de market power) ; 5. combining :
gérondif, complément de moyen ; 6. working : gérondif sujet (de
was) ; 7. infuriating : adj. verbal, attribut (de working).
Voir ci-dessus 3 et 5.
1. du bricolage électronique dans un garage au lancement
d’une start-up (le français emploie ici des noms)
2. l’informatique des tablettes, l’édition numérique, et même le
commerce de détail (idem)
3. Il parvint à ce résultat en créant [...] une société (emploi d’un
gérondif français)
4. une société pourvue d’une puissance de vente durable
(emploi d’un adjectif en français)
5. En associant art et technologie, beauté et puissance de calcul
(emploi d’un gérondif français)
6. Travailler avec lui pouvait être à la fois exaspérant et une
source d’inspiration (infinitif et adjectif verbal en français)
Application/expression

(exemples tirés de l’article de the Economist)
1. obsessed with making advanced technology : gérondif,
complément de l’adjectif obsessed
2. an existing but half-formed idea : adjectif verbal, épithète
3. ended up being held by many : participe présent, groupe
being held attribut
4. an astonishing attention to detail : adjectif verbal, épithète
5. the ailing company : adjectif verbal, épithète
6. what was perhaps most astonishing : adjectif verbal, attribut
7. the resulting product : adjectif verbal, épithète
a. When it came to putting on a show for a new product

livre du professeur

nobody else in the computer industry could match Steve Jobs.
b. Mr Jobs spent his life packaging computer magic into elegantly
designed, easy-to-use products.
c. The era of personal technology is just beginning.
d. He empowered millions of people by giving them access to
cutting-edge technology.
e. His insistence on putting users first has become deeply
ingrained in his own company and is now spreading to rival
firms.
f. At the recent unveiling of its new tablet computer by Amazon’s
CEO Mr Bezos, there were a few swipes at Apple.
g. By doing his best to imitate Mr Jobs, Mr Bezos, unwittingly,
also flattered him.

Situations which have changed
Corrigé
Observation/réflexion
But : maîtriser les structures permettant d’opposer le passé au
présent.
used to be forbidden, not any more, no longer, the way we
used to
adverbes : not any more, no longer
All that didn’t use to be forbidden territory.
All (that) used to be swept under the carpet. / All (that) is no
longer swept under the carpet. We don’t look up to our betters as
we did before.
Application/expression
a. Philanthropy is no longer what it used to be.
b. The press didn’t use to question people in power.
c. The relationship between the government and the press didn’t
use to be what it has become/is now.
d. There used to be a tendency to cover up scandals of all sorts.
e. Nowadays people in authority are no longer respected.

Making complex sentences
Corrigé
Observation/réflexion
But : aider la compréhension et la création d’énoncés complexes.
(relatifs et leurs antécédents)
1. that, personal computers ; 2. Ø, the way ; 3. who, creative
designers, daredevil engineers ; 4. whose, businessperson ;
5. which, a Hollywood movie ; 6. Ø, the fanatical loyalty.
(justifications)
1. that : relatif « passe partout » remplace antécédent de toute
nature, toutes fonctions sauf complément de nom
2. relatif « zéro » complément de manière de did
3. who, sujet relatif utilisé pour les personnes
4. whose, relatif complément de nom, utilisé en anglais moderne
quelle que soit la nature de l’antécédent (humain ou non)
5. which, relatif pour antécédent non humain, ici mis en
apposition à l’antécédent par l’utilisation du tiret et attribut du
sujet it
6. Ø, complément d’objet de inspire
Les relatifs peuvent être omis sauf quand ils ont les fonctions
sujet, ou complément de nom (génitif), ou lorsqu’ils introduisent

une relative non-définissante auquel cas ils sont précédés
(presque toujours) d’une virgule, voire d’un tiret.
Application/expression
a. He demanded a lot from the people who worked for him.
b. Jobs learned from his mistakes, of which there were many/
which were many.
c. He was born to a Syrian student and his American girlfriend (,)
who gave him up for adoption immediately.
d. In 1979, he visited Xerox’s research lab where he was dazzled
by what he saw.
e. Steve pushed the buttons of many people, one of whom was
John Sculley, formerly Pepsi’s CEO.
f. The iPhone brought a new touchscreen technology onto the
market which instantly made every other smartphone look like
an antique.
g. Jobs designed closed and inflexible products and systems,
which was what his critics complained about.

Phrasal verbs: adverb or preposition?
Corrigé
Observation/réflexion
But : aider les élèves à comprendre et à utiliser ces tournures
idiomatiques.
up to : up/adverbe (= look respectfully), to/préposition
(= introduit le complément de look up)
away : adverbe (= le COD est placé entre give et away qui n’est
jamais une préposition)
up : adverbe (= a film company est le COD de set up)
about : préposition rejetée après le verbe dans ce passif
prépositionnel
look up, give away, set up
Un phrasal verb est intransitif ou transitif direct. On peut
souvent le remplacer par un verbe d’origine latine. S’il est court,
le COD de ce type de verbe peut être placé entre le verbe et
l’adverbe. La préposition, elle, introduit le complément du verbe.
Pour compliquer l’analyse, certains phrasal verbs sont aussi
prépositionnels (look up to + compl.).
We no longer consider our betters with respect. But you
say in the book that philanthropy is not just donating money.
He made a lot of money which enabled him to launch a film
company. A lot of his philanthropic work isn’t discussed in the
media.
Application/expression
a. Born on October 28th 1955, Bill Gates grew up in Seattle with
his two sisters.
b. The Melinda and Bill Gates Foundation has given out over $6.2
billion in grants/scholarships since its inception.
c. In 1987 Hewlett was named director emeritus, serving in that
position until he passed away on Jan. 12, 2001.
d. Hewlett’s most lasting legacy was not HP, but rather the
Foundation that he set up in 1966 with his wife Flora and their
eldest son, Walter.
e. Robert W. Johnson died of Bright’s disease in 1910, and his
brother James took over until the founder’s son, Robert W.
Johnson II was ready to take the helm.
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012 11

1 Heroes and Legends
f. Robert W. Johnson II grew up in an era when wealthy
individuals were expected to give back a portion of their wealth
to the community.
g. Carnegie grew up in a working-class family and was expected
to take up the weaving trade.

True Brits

(p. 20-21)
(p. 20)

Script
tapescript5-p20
WOMAN: You may think that heroic fantasy is very much a presentday genre, but its origins go back quite a long way. That’s
according to Lev Grossman, the book critic for Time magazine
who also broadcasts on national radio in the United States.
Tom, you’ve just come back from New York and I believe
you heard Lev Grossman recommending something rather
unexpected.
MAN: Yes, quite recently he chose to recommend that his listeners
should read the quartet of novels The Once and Future King
by T. H. White, which rather surprised me.
WOMAN: Because... ?
MAN: Well, for one thing, they’re such... such English books. The
first one was written in 1938, remember, on the eve of war
with Germany. People were working themselves up into a
pitch of patriotic fervour. In Germany they had the Nordic
heroes like Siegfried; in England we had King Arthur.
WOMAN: You mean it was propaganda?
MAN: No, no, nothing like that. It wasn’t even published until 20
years later. But it was definitely a product of its time, like
Lord of the Rings, which was also written during the Second
World War. Same idea really: fighting for right against the
forces of evil. And the fact that T. H. White actually brings
Robin Hood into the books – a total anachronism really –
can’t be accidental. The other great legend of English history.
There’s definitely a lot of patriotism in there.
WOMAN: But is that a reason why 21st century Americans
shouldn’t appreciate it? I mean, the story of Arthur is just as
well-known over there as it is here.
MAN: True, but Grossman is probably a bit of an exception.
Apparently, The Sword in the Stone, the first of the quartet,
has been one of his favourite books since he was a child. He
says it sets the standard by which he judges all historical
fiction, and is the most perfect story of childhood committed
to paper.
WOMAN: But surely The Once and Future King is much more than
that...
MAN: Oh yes, indeed, and Grossman also says he admires the
novels for the way they transform an epic into modern
language without losing any of the grandeur or the magic of
the original story. In fact he thinks that T. H. White should be
considered one of the founding fathers of modern fantasy.
Corrigé
1. “Legendary” has two meanings: either (1) “belonging to
legend” or (2) “so famous that everyone knows about him/her/
it”. King Arthur is legendary in the second sense and possibly
12 Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

in the first sense too. He is probably imaginary but it is difficult
to call him fictional because it is not sure whether his first
appearance in the written word was pure invention or not. After
the departure of the Romans, there were a great many RomanoBritish “kings”; one of them could easily have been the inspiration
for the legend. However, most of Arthur’s extraordinary exploits
and those of his knights – as recounted by poets and other
writers – are undoubtedly fictional.
Alfred the Great is legendary in the second sense (after all, he
is the only English monarch called “the Great”), and it is certain
that some of the anecdotes about his life, like the one in the
picture, are imaginary. He himself, however, was a real person
and not fictional or imaginary.
The legend of Robin Hood came together from several different
sources and, in fact, there are different legends situated at
different times in history and portraying Robin in different ways.
It would be fair to say that he is legendary in all senses of the word.
Winston Churchill is neither imaginary nor fictional. However, his
speeches and certain things about him have become legendary
(in the second sense of the word): his cigar, his heavy drinking,
his determination and his talent for public speaking.
2. a. It was written in 1938 at a time when there was a great
current of patriotism (in preparation for what was regarded by
many as certain war against Germany).
2. b. T. H. White was one of the founders of modern fantasy.
Arthur was the (legendary) founder of a unified England.
3. a. (exemples) The characteristics said to have made England
great are: unity in the face of a common enemy, courage,
perseverance, resourcefulness...
3. b. (exemples) The characteristics most admired by English
people are: courage in adversity, modesty, tolerance, fairness,
honesty, dependability, self-deprecation...

Gospel Truth? (p. 22-23)
(p. 22)
Corrigé
The Death of Nelson
Lord Nelson is shown in a state of collapse but his head is held
high and he is looking up (possibly to Heaven...). His pose is
elegant and studied, his clothes unstained by blood, and he
is the centre of attention on the ship. This is obviously a hero
approaching death with calm and dignity.
The Secret of England’s Greatness
Queen Victoria is standing looking down at an African monarch
who is kneeling before her as a mark of submission (Victoria
was only between 1m 40 and 1m 50 tall so it would have been
out of the question to show the African standing up...). She is
the all-powerful one here, the one to be respected and revered.
Her “greatness” is highlighted and echoed in the painting’s title.
The Surrender of General Lord Cornwallis
General Benjamin Lincoln is on horseback and so is Washington,
who is behind him. This automatically raises them above the
level of the British (in red), who are on foot. Lincoln’s hand is held

livre du professeur

out towards the British officer’s sword, symbolising surrender.
The Americans and French are shown as equal partners in the
victory. Note that Lord Cornwallis himself is not present even
though his defeat is the very subject of the painting. This almost
constitutes an insult to the defeated Lord.
• It needs to portray something momentous in the country’s
history, one that its citizens remember or need to be reminded of
even years, decades or centuries later. As well as this, it should
of course have great artistic merit.
• By saying what he did, West admitted that he knew the
circumstances of what happened. He knew that Nelson did not
die on the main deck and that some of the people shown in the
picture were not actually present. Many people who would see
the painting would know it was not true to life, but West knew
that people who idolised Nelson (i.e. most of the British nation)
would not mind at all, for what they wanted was something
that contributed to the Admiral’s reputation and almost godlike
status. By adding a touch of fiction to a real event, Trumbull
managed to raise Nelson even higher in people’s opinions, and,
although he departed from the “gospel truth” (hence the title of
this double page), he undoubtedly told himself that the “truth”
he was imparting was in many ways just as valid. It should not
be forgotten that our present-day obsession with verifiable fact
is a relatively recent fashion when it comes to telling a story...

PROJECT

(p. 23)
Pour cette activité, deux options sont possibles : la réalisation
d’une courte vidéo à présenter à la classe, ou une scène à
jouer « en direct » en classe. Dans les deux cas, précisons si
besoin est l’importance de la « voix-off », la voix de la fiabilité
historique, celle qui restitue la vérité clairement et en détail,
surtout lorsqu’une « docu-fiction » (on pense à certaines
réalisations télévisées prenant appui sur des civilisations
antiques, Pompéi, Herculanum, Troie, l’Egypte des Pharaons)
sort forcément quelque peu du fil historique rapporté par les
historiens et experts pour rendre l’histoire plus « attrayante »
ou « télégénique ». Il est ainsi nécessaire de rappeler aux
spectateurs la distance qu’il convient d’adopter face aux faits
ainsi relatés et la nécessité de s’approprier ces faits historiques
par des voies plus « conventionnelles » en parallèle.
L’activité supplémentaire
Une fiche de travail est téléchargeable : artfile-p.22. Il s’agit d’un
texte sur Benjamin West.
Corrigé
artfile-p.22
Despite his humble origins, the American painter, Benjamin West
(1738-1820) reached the pinnacle of English art in 1772 when
he became an official court painter for King George III and, in
1792, President of the Royal Academy of Arts. The young painter,
John Trumbull arrived on West’s doorstep in London in 1780.
Unlike West who had little formal education, Trumbull came from
an elite American family; his father was Governor of Connecticut
and a supporter of the American rebellion.
West had the gift of inspiring his students, improving their
skills while ensuring that they retained their individuality, not
reducing them to mere clones of their teacher. A few months

after his arrival in London, Trumbull was imprisoned on
charges of treason. At some risk to his own reputation, West
did not abandon the young artist. Instead, he supplied him with
materials which allowed Trumbull to continue his artistic studies
while in prison.
West had pioneered a new category of art: modern history
painting. According to artistic theory dating from the
Renaissance, history painting was the highest category of art. It
involved subjects not only from ancient history and mythology,
but also from the Bible and other elevated literature. The key
was to depict uplifting human behaviour which embodied virtue.
Anything too contemporary was deemed too familiar and hence
was considered inappropriate -- the fear being that (according
to the old saying) familiarity breeds contempt or, at least, fails
to instil veneration. In 1770 West chose to defy this custom
with his painting The Death of General Wolfe which depicted
the last moments of the British hero, General Wolfe, who died
in the course of a victorious battle in Canada during the recent
French and Indian Wars. West insisted upon depicting General
Wolfe in the brilliant red military garb of contemporary British
soldiers, not in timeless classical drapery, and upon placing
the military “martyrdom” in a recognisable Canadian setting.
It was a bold and revolutionary portrayal since it countered
traditional academic theory which argued that dignity and
veneration required the distancing of contemporary events in
universalising allegory and costume. Despite misgivings on the
part of the English art world and the King himself when West
announced his intentions, the painting was a great success.
It inspired many artists, including Trumbull, to embrace such
modern themes in the late eighteenth century.
West’s example had a profound effect upon Trumbull. When
Trumbull made a second visit to London in 1784, after the
Revolutionary War had ended, he decided, with West’s enthusiastic
encouragement and guidance, to immortalise the recent American
struggle for independence in a series of paintings.

Ateliers (p. 24-26)
Atelier 1

(p. 24)
Script
dvdscript-p24
This man said that imagination is more important than
knowledge. Welcome to watchmojo.com and today we’ll be
learning more about the life and accomplishments of Albert
Einstein.
Born March 14th 1879 in Germany, Albert Einstein’s early
scientific interest can be traced to a simple compass he was
shown at the age of five, which prompted him to wonder what
controlled its movement. At age ten, he was given important
readings in mathematics, science and philosophy to nurture his
talents. While at school, Einstein excelled in certain subjects,
though his boredom made him appear lazy to many of his
teachers. Upon graduating at the turn of the 20th century,
Einstein unsuccessfully sought a teaching job. Instead he
eventually secured employment at a Swiss patent office which
allowed him enough spare time to continue his scientific
research and studies. His work there centred on electromagnetic
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012 13

1 Heroes and Legends
devices and this greatly influenced his later ideas and theories.
1905 was a huge year in Einstein’s career and it has since been
labelled his annus mirabilis or miracle year. It was the year the
scientific community took notice. He was awarded his PhD by
the University of Zurich and published four landmark papers
during that period. These papers went on to build the foundation
of physics and alter the accepted perceptions of space, time
and matter. This was also when he introduced the most famous
equation of the 20th century – E=MC2 – in reference to the
relationship between the mass and energy of a certain object.
Within three years, Einstein’s reputation as a foremost scientist
helped him become a university lecturer. Soon after, he quit
that and his job as a patent clerk to rise through the ranks
and become a full professor, which he achieved in 1911. He
continued within the world of academia and in 1919 he became
world-famous when a theory he had put forth years earlier was
effectively proven true. His general theory of relativity further
explained the forces of gravity and made him a successor to
Isaac Newton in the world of physics.
In 1921 Einstein was honoured with the Nobel Prize in physics
for his explanation of the photoelectric effect of quantum
mechanics, which helped clarify the nature of light. He was
subsequently treated as a veritable celebrity on his travels
around the world and throngs of fans gathered to hear him
speak. His fame allowed him to help further his social and
political beliefs. However, his status as a Jew made him a target
for the rising Nazi party. By 1933 he was no longer able to teach
in Germany: his works were being burned and he was even
targeted for assassination. A well-known pacifist with Zionist
beliefs, Einstein decided to move to the United States that year
and settle at New Jersey’s Institute for Advanced Study.
In 1939 Einstein went against his pacifist leanings to alert
the American government to the possibility that Hitler and
his forces were creating nuclear weapons. Initially sceptical,
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt eventually conceded and
the Manhattan Project materialised. This was the mission that
saw the development of the first atomic bomb.
The next year, Einstein became an American citizen. He was also
a prominent member of the NAACP or National Association for
the Advancement of Colored People and was part of the battle
for civil rights in the US.
In 1952 as one of the world’s most prominent Jews, Einstein
was approached by the Israeli Premier to become the second
president of the newly-formed state of Israel. He declined,
claiming he lacked the people skills necessary for the job.
Einstein’s later years were spent trying to discover a Unified
Field Theory that would explain the basic forces of nature
and the universe in one framework, or essentially a theory of
everything. However, he was unable to do so before his death on
April 18th 1955 from internal bleeding caused by an abdominal
aortic aneurism. He worked tirelessly until the end of his life and
even brought with him a speech to finish on his final hospital
trip. Albert Einstein is not only remembered as one of the fathers
of modern physics and perhaps the most famous scientist of
the 20th century but also as an unpretentious genius who never
lost his childlike sense of wonder.
14 Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

Corrigé
(questions du manuel)
Newton formulated the theory of gravity, Darwin developed
the theory of evolution (thereby going against literal
interpretations of the Bible), Edison invented the light bulb
(revolutionising people’s everyday lives), Einstein worked out
the theory of relativity (making it theoretically possible to travel
in time) and Fleming discovered penicillin (which changed the
course of medical history).
a. Because he was bored, his teachers thought he was lazy.
b. He got his PhD, he published four imprtant papers and he
introduced the equation E=MC2.
c. He had become world-famous in 1919 and was awarded the
Nobel Prize in physics in 1921 but in Germany his works were
burned by the Nazis in the 1930s and he was not allowed to
teach (because he was Jewish).
d. It is not surprising because he was a victim himself of
intolerance and inhumanity. Being Jewish in Nazi Germany
must have seemed very similar to being black in certain states
of the USA.
e. They think he turned his back on his pacifism when he put
himself at the disposal of the US government and the Manhattan
Project, which was designed to kill people on a huge scale.
(students’ own answers)
dvdfile-p24
A. 1905 He was awarded his PhD. He published four very
important papers. He introduced the equation E=MC2.
1911 He became a university professor.
1919 He achieved worldwide celebrity.
1921 He was awarded the Nobel Prize.
1933 He decided to move to the USA.
1939 He warned the US government about German plans
to create nuclear weapons.
1952 He was asked if he would like to be President of Israel.
B. 1/a/b, 2/a/c, 3/b, 4/b, 5/c.

Atelier 2

(p. 25)

Corrigé

The author is in his 60s. He is American and he has children.
He is a psychologist and his favourite heroes were Superman
and Batman.
As an adult, he viewed comic books differently, not only
through adult eyes but his being a psychologist also changed
his perception of superhero stories.
He realised that there is something universal about
superhero stories. Readers can identify with superheroes. They
recognise their own strengths and weaknesses in those of their
heroes.
Batman is a good example. The author explains that the
people who have gone through a trauma often overcome that
trauma by dedicating their lives to charitable activities.

ll. 21-23: superhero stories are about morality and loyalty,
about self-doubt and conviction of beliefs. l. 41: Superheroes
also serve as models of moral behavior.

livre du professeur

As a child he found the answers to his questions by immersing
himself in a superhero story. He could apply to himself what he
had learnt from his superheroes.
ll.26-29: Moreover, in our superheroes’ foibles, struggles and
triumphs, we can see elements of our own foibles and struggles,
and hope for our lost triumphs.
ll. 54-56: But from each superhero’s struggles and actions, I had
the opportunity to learn something about myself.
ll. 64-65: Through observing others, we learn something that we
can apply to ourselves.
The author’s message is that stories about superheroes put
forward a model of moral conduct. Superheroes represent the
epitome of American moral values that children can apply to
themselves.

Atelier 3

(p. 26)

Corrigé

Loyalty, bravery and altruism.
Suggestions: loyalty/Nelson Mandela, bravery/Aung San Suu
Kyi, altruism/Mother Teresa of Calcutta.
Examples: courage, nerve, fearlessness, audacity, strength,
influence, might, vigour, energy, generosity, kindness, bigheartedness.
The heroes are the NYC firefighters and rescuers who died on
9/11 trying to save people’s lives.
(students’ own answers)
Ten years after the 9/11 attack, the cartoonist wants to
remind us that hundreds of people put their lives at risk to save
other people and that we mustn’t forget them. Heroes are not
only in books and superhero stories but can be found all over the
world in everyday life.

Atelier 4

(p. 26)
Corrigé
Si cela est possible, on mettra chaque groupe autour d’une
table ronde afin que les élèves partagent leurs arguments et
mobilisent le lexique.
Le groupe A fait la liste des grands personnages de la vie
politique ou de la littérature, héros de films ou de cinéma qui ont
eu un impact positif sur la société. Sous forme de prise de notes,
ils font le point sur le besoin qu’ont les humains de s’identifier
à un modèle. Dans un deuxième temps, individuellement, ils
réfléchissent à l’influence positive qu’a pu exercer sur eux un
personnage célèbre (romancier, musicien, chanteur, acteur,
personnage de bande dessinée etc.).
Le groupe B fait la liste des risques potentiels que l’identification
à une célébrité peut entraîner sur les masses ou à titre
individuel. Il conviendra de donner des exemples concrets. On
peut également demander aux élèves de comparer les héros
d’aujourd’hui aux héros d’hier. Pendant la phase d’interaction, les
deux groupes se font face et interviennent librement.
Une autre possibilité est de faire interagir les élèves deux à deux.

Atelier 5
Corrigé
B1. (students’ own answers)

(p. 26)

B2. Afin d’enrichir le devoir, on suggérera aux élèves de faire
quelques recherches sur Steve Jobs : ses réalisations concrètes,
ses stratégies de communication, sa personnalité, son impact
sur notre vie quotidienne, son portrait sur le site officiel d’Apple,
les innombrables articles et témoignages (de ses fans et de ses
détracteurs).
http://www.apple.com/stevejobs/
http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/10/05/scitech/
main20116338.shtml
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/steve-jobs/8899695/
The-critics-who-have-taken-on-Steve-Jobs.html

Class Project

(p. 27)
Ce projet de classe est inspiré de l’émission Britain’s Got Talent
(connu en France sous le nom de « La France a un Incroyable
Talent ») que les élèves connaissent bien et dont beaucoup
sont friands, ce qui peut être une source de motivation
supplémentaire. Ce projet se propose de conserver le format du
programme télévisé avec des candidats, des présentateurs et
un jury. Chaque élève se voit assigner un rôle qu’il devra jouer
lors de la présentation du projet.
Les élèves en compétition pour être élu le héros de l’année
travailleront seuls en gardant leur « talent » secret afin de
préserver le suspense et rendre le projet plus stimulant.
Les présentateurs prépareront ensemble : ils doivent animer le
spectacle, se répartir les rôles, le temps de parole, décider de
l’ordre de passage, présenter les candidats brièvement, etc.
Le jury devra se mettre d’accord sur le type de héros qu’il
recherche et surtout prendre des notes pendant le passage
des candidats afin de pouvoir leur demander des explications,
clarifications, etc. Il faut que chaque membre du jury pose une
question par candidat. Ensuite ils devront délibérer dans une
salle à part tout en anglais (activité qui sera jugée par un des
présentateurs qui les suivra) et argumenter. Cette activité, si
elle n’est pas encadrée par le professeur, pourra être filmée par
le présentateur les accompagnant afin d’apporter la preuve que
la délibération s’est bel et bien déroulée en anglais. Par ailleurs,
nous préconisons de filmer ces présentations de projet car le
visionnage permet aux élèves de s’auto-évaluer, de prendre
conscience de leurs points forts et de leurs points faibles.
Les professeurs qui souhaiteraient évaluer ce projet peuvent
préparer une fiche d’évaluation avec leurs élèves (points
importants à repérer : la qualité de la langue, des arguments, du
lexique, des expressions idiomatiques, des mots de liaison, du
ton utilisé, etc.) et évaluer eux-mêmes ou demander aux élèves
candidats qui ne « passent » pas de le faire (chacun se voyant
attribuer un membre du jury, un présentateur, ou un candidat).

Mock exam

(p. 28-29)

Cette épreuve peut être proposée dans son intégralité aux
élèves des séries ES et S. Les dix premières questions de la
partie « compréhension de l’écrit » et la première question du
sujet d’expression écrite peuvent être proposées aux élèves des
séries technologiques.
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012 15

1 Heroes and Legends
Corrigé
Comprehension de l’écrit
a. The characters present are Barack Obama, Gramps, Tutu
and Ann, who is Barack Obama’s mother.
b. The characters mentioned are Barack Obama’s dad and a
friend of Barack Obama’s parents.
False. “He had left Hawai back in 1963, when I was only two
years old.” (ll. 2-3)
The conversation takes place in the house of the narrator’s
grandparents.
The narrator’s father is called Barack Obama.
False. “sipping whiskey.” (l.8), “Gramps stops to take another
nip from his flask” (ll. 42-43), “but Gramps takes another sip of
whiskey “ (l. 66)
A lookout is a place from which you can get a good view of
something. The narrator’s parents went there with one of their
friends because they had decided to show him around. (cf. ll. 2223)
He was African.
a. He got it from his own father as a birthday present.
b. “if he could give it a try” (l. 36), “he started coughing up a fit.”
(l. 38)
c. Their friend coughed so hard that he dropped the pipe “a
hundred feet down the face of the cliff.” (ll. 40-41)

The narrator’s father threatened to throw his friend over the
railing.
10 True. “your mother was begging Barack to stop” (l. 69), “of
course your mother was still pretty upset when they got home.”
(l. 77)

16 Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

11 The narrator‘s mother and grandparents kept telling him
the same stories. Because they had been told so many times,
they were recounted the same way every time, without any
hesitation.
12 Sea captains are in a position of authority and, because they
are often portrayed smoking a pipe, the pipe has come to be
equated with authority and, by extension, wisdom. The African
student must have been so impressed that he wanted to try
smoking the pipe.
13 Gramps seems to pity the African student. It shows that the
narrator’s father overreacted.
14 For her, the boy’s reaction was completely normal and
rational. Anybody would have offered to buy a new pipe instead
of risking their life trying to get it back.

Expression écrite
LV1/LV2 (B1)
(students’ own answers)
Récompenser les copies qui mettent en avant les sentiments du
personnage (peur, consternation, incompréhension...)
(exemple) At the end of the passage, the narrator is told that
his father was a courageous man who would do anything in order
to achieve what he had set out to do. He paid no attention to
what other people thought. In other words, the narrator’s father
is portrayed as a heroic figure.
The grandfather is a sort of “go-between” who is continuously
trying to keep his dead son’s memory alive. Recounting
anecdotes about someone is a good way of not allowing them
to be forgotten.
LV1 (B2)
(students’ own answers)

livre du professeur

The Maltese Falcon

2 Nobody’s Perfect

(p. 32-33)
(p. 32)

Pages d’ouverture

(p. 30-31)

Après les héros légendaires réels ou imaginaires, nous passons
à une vue plus moderne du héros, celle qui montre aussi
qu’un héros est celui qui surmonte ses faiblesses. Mais nous
abordons aussi la thématique du héros déchu, qu’il s’agisse de
personnages réels ou fictifs.
La double page d’ouverture propose un échantillon de ce type de
héros/anti-héros et les questions de la partie Speak permettent
aux élèves d’entrer de plain-pied dans la thématique du chapitre.
(p. 31)
Corrigé
(students’ own answers)
He fell from favour because of scandal about his affairs with
various women. His worst mistake was saying under oath and in
public that he did not have “sexual relations” with one particular
woman, Monica Lewinsky, because it was proved that he lied.
He was impeached for perjury and obstruction of justice but not
convicted.
The cartoon is a reference to a story that all Americans know. It is
about George Washington who, it is said, chopped down a cherry
tree when he was only 6 (because he was trying out a hatchet).
When his father angrily asked who had done it, he admitted,
saying “I cannot tell a lie, father, you know I cannot tell a lie! I
did cut it with my little hatchet.” Clinton is shown in the same
situation but, instead of admitting to the deed, he denies all
knowledge of it even when the evidence is staring us in the face.
The posters are all of films that involve anti-heroes, i.e.
people who are not perfect but whom one admires anyway.
Dirty Harry is a violent, ruthless policeman (but fighting on
the side of right), the heroes of Inglourious Basterds (note the
deliberately incorrect spelling) seem to be as bloodthirsty as
their Nazi enemies, and Hamlet manages to kill his own loved
ones while trying to get revenge for his father’s death.
Here, one can include Floyd Landis, winner of the 2006
Tour de France but stripped of his title for using drugs. He only
admitted this in 2010 and finally retired from racing in 2011
at the age of 36. He attracted the admiration/hero-worship
that goes with being a sports star, a singing star (cf. Amy
Whitehouse) or a politician (cf. Bill Clinton). Physical attributes
are also important when it comes to admiration/hero-worship:
Amy Winehouse may not have been classically beautiful but she
was provocative and sexy; Bill Clinton was a young good-looking
president and many women found him very attractive; Floyd
Landis had the fit body of a sportsman... The same applies to
the movie anti-heroes: it is no accident that the anti-heroes in
question are played by men who are regarded as sex symbols:
Clint Eastwood, Brad Pitt and Mel Gibson.

L’extrait littéraire présenté ici, et notamment illustré par l’affiche
du film réalisé en 1941 d’après le roman de Dashiell Hammett
publié en 1930, nous présente les personnages principaux de
l’extrait, Sam Spade et Iva. Sam Spade est le héro du roman mais
un héro très différent des personnages habituels de romans
notamment parce que l’auteur présente son personnage
uniquement à travers ses gestes et paroles. Le point de vue
exclusivement objectif omet toutes les pensées du personnage,
les motivations internes qui pourraient apporter au lecteur un
point de vue plus intime ou personnel du personnage. Le film
est un classique du « film noir », un genre qui emprunte à la fois
au film de gangsters et au film de détectives. Marqué par la crise
économique de 1929 et par la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, les
films américains reflètent les grandes déceptions de l’époque.
Les films deviennent plus réalistes. Les tournages ont parfois
lieu en pleine rue et non plus uniquement dans des studios.
L’atmosphère est sombre, la femme est fatale. Il pleut souvent.
Les scènes se déroulent la nuit. John Huston, le réalisateur du
film, a eu le génie de transposer le style de Hammett au cinéma
en présentant un film qui ne montre une histoire qu’à travers le
point du vue du personnage principal, Sam Spade. Il est présent
dans toutes les scènes, sauf une, celle du meurtre de son
associé.
Corrigé
The picture on the left is a still from the film of the novel The
Maltese Falcon by Dashiell Hammett. It’s in black and white
and shows a man trying to console a woman who seems to be
crying. However, we do not see any tears and the woman has
her back turned to the man.... He is standing very close to her
and is touching her arm, which suggests that they belong to the
same family, are husband and wife, or are intimate friends. The
woman is dressed in smart black clothes (black dress, black
hat) and is wearing a pearl necklace. She might be in mourning.
She looks well-to-do. The second picture is the poster for the
same film. The actor on the poster is the same as the character
in the picture. He is holding a gun, which suggests that it is a
gangster or detective film. The black and white picture, the date
the film was released (1941), and the actor (Humphrey Bogart)
place the film in the classic genre of the “film noir”.
(p. 32)
Corrigé
The scene takes place in Sam Spade’s office at ten o’clock in
the morning (“When Sam Spade reached his office at ten o’clock
the following morning”).
The three characters are Sam Spade, a private detective,
Effie Perine, his secretary, and Iva, who could be Sam’s late
partner’s wife.
The kissing implies that they are having, or at least have had,
an affair and that Iva is in love with him. However, Sam Spade
does not love her. He asks his secretary to “keep her away”.
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012 17

2 Nobody’s Perfect
He complains when his secretary lets her come into his office
anyway. He feels (or pretends to feel) pity for her and kisses her
to make her stop crying but has “brooding” eyes once she is gone.
Iva thinks Sam Spade killed her husband (“did you kill him?”,
“You killed my husband, Sam”).
He is being ironic and is not afraid to say out loud what he
thinks of her. He thinks she is stupid and does not care about
hurting her feelings.
Iva cries because her husband was killed and because Sam
Spade’s words are harsh. The tears are also a way to make Sam
Spade be nice to her. As soon as she starts crying, “he put his
arms around her. He kissed her neck”.
In the last sentence, we discover that Sam Spade’s partner is
dead. Iva’s husband might be this partner, which suggests that
Sam Spade was having an affair with his partner’s wife. Or, Iva’s
husband died as well as his partner in which case Sam might
be feeling overwhelmed by the trouble he is having with his
partner’s absence, the loss of a friend, and his problems with Iva.
The hero/heroine of a novel is usually the most likeable
or sympathetic character in the book because the reader is
expected to identify with him/her. (NB. “sympathetic” means
for whom the reader feels the most sympathy or empathy.) But
Sam Spade is not a sympathetic hero. He is more an anti-hero
than a hero. He is not honest with the woman who is apparently
in love with him and who is in distress. He is irritable because
his secretary has let Iva enter his office. He tries to get rid of her
as quickly as possible (“a surreptitious look at the watch on his
wrist”) and does not promise to go and see her that night (“not
tonight”). The text gives us no information about what he feels
and why he reacts the way he does. His cold, harsh words are
not those of someone sympathetic...
(p. 32)
Corrigé
L’expression écrite proposée ici permet d’adapter ses exigences
aux niveaux des élèves de la classe. Sensibiliser les élèves au
style de l’auteur et leur conseiller de l’imiter. (Écrire à la manière
de...).
WORDWORK

(p. 32)

Corrigé
wordfile-p32-1a/1b
A. (towards Effie) complained, irritable, cranky, put his hand
on her head, smoothed her hair, sorry angel.
(towards Iva) his kiss, held her, a little movement to release
her, stroke her back, poor darling, impatient grimace, grimaced
again, surreptitious look at her mouth, scowled at her, asked
coldly, laughed at her, clapped his palms, kissed her neck,
kissed her mouth.
voice low and warning, irritable, her shoulders drooped,
wearily.
came quickly to him, raising her sad face for his kiss, pressed
her face, sobbing, her eyes were wet, white-ringed, fresh tears,
humbly, moaned, you’ll come tonight?
B. Black clothes, mourning, sobbing, wet eyes, white-ringed,
killed, white handkerchief to her face, dead partner.
18 Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

C. Made a little movement as if to release her, drew his lips back
over his teeth, impatient grimace, turned his chin aside, bent his
head for a surreptitious look at the watch, asked coldly, bright
idea, his eyes still glittering, bowed her out, brooding eyes.
wordfile-p32-2
A. 1/m, 2/h, 3/r, 4/a, 5/t, 6/c, 7/q, 8/b, 9/g, 10/p, 11/d, 12/e,
13/o, 14/k, 15/f, 16/i, 17/j, 18/l, 19/n, 20/s.
B. whispered, barked, called, mumbled, cry out, hissed.
(p. 32)
Corrigé
teamfile-p32-1
A. No, he is not. He asked his secretary to “keep her away”.
He takes her in his arms and consoles her. At the end of the
passage, they kiss.
impatient: “a surreptitious look at the watch on his wrist”,
“impatient grimace”, “His cuff was pulled back far enough to
leave the watch uncovered”.
angry: “His eyes were ... angry.”, “He scowled at her”.
hard-boiled: “he asked coldly”, “His face was expressionless”.
scornful: “Ha!”, “Jesus Christ!”, “Who put that bright idea into
your head?”.
He goes towards her, puts his arms around her and kisses
her.
Low, tender, coldly.
He is tough and unsentimental by nature. He sees Iva as
being untrustworthy.
Sam Spade’s partner has a desk in his office. As a result every
time he sees the desk, he is angry: “His eyes, squinting at the
desk that had been his partner’s, across the room from his own,
were angry.” And “He sat holding the papers in one hand, the
tobacco in the other, and looked with brooding eyes at his dead
partner’s desk.” One reason that might explain his reaction, both
his friendship for his partner and the kissing of his partner’s
wife, is that he believes that Iva is responsible for her husband’s
death and does not want to arouse her suspicions. By kissing
her and making believe that he cares for her, he hopes to find his
partner’s murderer.
teamfile-p32-2
Iva Archer’s husband was Sam Spade’s partner.
Iva Archer is a little more than thirty. She is pretty and has
a charming figure but she is just starting to get a little old (“Her
facial prettiness was perhaps five years past its best moment”).
“She wore black clothes from hat to shoes. They had as
mourning an impromptu air.”
“She came to stand beside the desk, moving with easy surefooted grace in black slippers whose smallness and heel-height
were extreme.”
She is dressed in black because her husband has died and so
she is in mourning but her manner of walking (“easy sure-footed
grace”) and the height of her heels reveal her will to continue to
seduce men.
Untrustworthy: “Did you send for Miles’s brother?” he asked.
“Yes, he came over this morning.” He grimaced again...

livre du professeur

Deceitful: “I thought –” She lifted a hand to her mouth and fresh
tears came to her eyes. She came to stand beside the desk,
moving with easy sure-footed grace in black slippers whose
smallness and heel-height were extreme. “Be kind to me, Sam,”
she said humbly.
Distressed: “Oh, Sam!” she said. The words were blurred by her
sobbing
She may have always been the type of woman who needs
to seduce men in order to get what she wants and now that her
husband is dead, she is looking for new protection in Sam Spade.
On one level she appears to be a tragic figure as she is
crying and seems helpless, but in fact her words and clothes are
not those of the tragic heroine; she lacks respect for her dead
husband.
teamfile-p32-3
A. They are kissing. This suggests they might be lovers
First, Sam Spade goes towards the window. Iva follows him
there.
When she goes towards him, he turns quickly and walks to his
desk.
Iva then follows him to his desk and starts crying again. Sam
Spade gets up and takes her in his arms.
They show that Iva is the one who is chasing Sam Spade
whereas he is trying to get away from her. There is no love in
this relationship.
His attitude is both cold and warm because he tries to get
away from her whilst trying to console her at the same time. He
probably thinks that being nice to her is the best way to get rid
of her.
He calls his secretary “angel” and calls Iva “darling” and
“precious”. Using an endearment to address a person can
be thought of in two ways. It either means a high degree of
intimacy or a certain degree of condescension. When the book
was written, it was more acceptable for men to use words like
“angel” to address women whom they were not intimate with.
These days, such a usage is considered patronising.
Clinging: “Her arms were around him before his held her.”
Deceitful: “I thought –” She lifted a hand to her mouth and fresh
tears came to her eyes. She came to stand beside the desk,
moving with easy sure-footed grace in black slippers whose
smallness and heel-height were extreme. “Be kind to me, Sam,”
she said humbly.
Melodramatic: “Oh, Sam,” she moaned, “did you kill him?”
(possible answer) One reason that might explain his
reaction, both his friendship for his partner and the kissing of his
partner’s wife, is that he believes that Iva is responsible for her
husband’s death and does not want to arouse her suspicions. By
kissing her and making believe that he cares for her, he hopes to
find his partner’s murderer.
teamfile-p32-4
Several passages show that Sam Spade is a tough-minded
character, whose patience runs short very quickly:
• “I asked you to keep her away,” Spade complained. • “His eyes
[...] were angry.” • He drew his lips back over his teeth in an
impatient grimace. • He scowled at her and cleared his throat. •
“Who,” he asked coldly, “put that bright idea in your head?”

Although Iva Archer is not the main person in the novel who
illustrates the idea of the femme fatale, she does have some
of the aspects: young, pretty, “finely modeled” body, dressed
to seduce (“in black slippers whose smallness and heel-height
were extreme”).
We have no insight into the characters’ true feelings or
thoughts. We can only see the characters’ actions and their
surroundings (door/handkerchief/desk). Sam Spade’s body
movements are described from a purely objective viewpoint, as
if they did not belong to him, as if he had no control over them
(“His left arm was around her”,“He took his arms from her”). Iva
Archer’s reactions are described in the same way (“She lifted
a hand to her mouth and fresh tears came to her eyes.”) As a
result, the reader has to guess what the characters are feeling
from their actions, words and facial expressions.
The novel was written and published during the Great
Depression which began with the stock market crash of
October 1929. Unemployment increased sharply. The number of
homeless people increased as well. Life was hard.
TRANSLATOR’S WORKSHOP

(p. 32)

Corrigé
– Elle est dans la pièce à côté, dit-elle à voix basse pour le
prévenir.
– Je t’avais demandé de l’empêcher d’entrer, dit Spade sur un
ton de reproche. Lui aussi parlait à voix basse.
Effie Perine ouvrit tout grands ses yeux noisette et sa voix se fit
aussi irritable que la sienne.
– Oui, mais tu ne m’as pas dit comment faire.
Ses paupières se refermèrent légèrement et ses épaules
retombèrent.
– Cesse de ronchonner, Sam, dit-elle d’un ton las, je l’ai supportée
toute la nuit.

PROJECT

(p. 33)
Il s’agit de mettre en scène l’extrait, le but étant d’entraîner les
élèves à produire un anglais le plus authentique possible. On
peut leur proposer de visionner le passage du film afin de les
aider à bien camper les attitudes des personnages, la kinésie
allant le plus souvent de pair avec la façon de délivrer un
message.

Presidential Lies

(p. 34)

(p. 34)
Corrigé
From left to right the three characters are Richard Nixon,
Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton. All three are former US presidents.
Both Nixon and Reagan are defiant. Clinton seems laid-back
and nonchalant.
They seem to be denying allegations made against them,
saying that they have done nothing wrong.
By putting these three assertions in the same drawing, the
cartoonist is implying that they are all lies.

Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012 19

2 Nobody’s Perfect
(p. 34)
Script tapescript6-p34
WOMAN: Good evening, and welcome to Late Night Comment.
Tonight we have the well-known historian David Fergusson,
whose new book Lies, Lies, Damned Lies investigates why
three US presidents got into big trouble for being, in the
famous phrase, ‘economical with the truth.’ David, what led
you to this particular subject, when your previous books
have been mostly about modern warfare?
DAVID: In writing my last book, on Richard Nixon and the war in
Vietnam, I was struck by how it was his lying that finished
him off with the American public, rather than what he
actually did.
WOMAN: Such as?
DAVID: The carpet bombing of Cambodia, which he carried out
under the cover of ‘airlifting supplies’. Henry Kissinger called
this ‘ingenious’ – the cover, that is, not the action. They
were like naughty boys, but the end result was death and
destruction. Similarly, the famous break-in to the Democrat’s
party headquarters in the Watergate Hotel was not regarded
as fatal to the President until it was proven, by studying
tapes of his conversations, that he had lied: he claimed to
have known nothing about it. ‘I’m not a crook,’ he said. But
he clearly was. The lying was what really upset the public.
WOMAN: Don’t all politicians lie?
DAVID: Clearly, politics is a very complex game, a bit like poker,
where you have to fool the opposition a lot of the time,
disguise your intentions. But outright lying is at one extreme.
Once discovered, it means no one can trust you. People need
to trust their leaders, believe in their basic integrity.
WOMAN: Your chapter on Ronald Reagan was fascinating. He
seemed, unlike Clinton and Nixon, to get away with his
untruths.
DAVID: Reagan was very clever at appealing to the public’s
sentimental side by using his actor’s folksy charm, admitting
just enough and saying sorry. So with the Iran-Contra
scandal, which was really horrendous in its implications –
WOMAN: Just remind us of the details...
DAVID: Well, in the 1980s there was a US arms embargo on
Iran, a country supporting terrorism. But a section of the
US government sold weapons to the Iranian military in
exchange for money and the freeing of American hostages.
Part of this money was used to fund the Contras.
WOMAN: Who weren’t a charity.
DAVID: Far from it! The Contras were violent anti-communist
rebels fighting the Nicaraguan socialist government: they
frequently raped, tortured and murdered civilians. President
Reagan appeared on TV in 1986: he admitted weapons
transfers had taken place, but denied any trading of arms
for hostages.
WOMAN: Which was a lie.
DAVID: Yes, because a few months later he gave another TV
speech in which he said, ‘You deserve the truth. I take
full responsibility.’ He then admitted that his previous
assertions were not true. In fact, it’s now clear that he knew
20 Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

all about the scheme, despite the appalling record of the
Contras. Somehow, history has forgiven him – with the help
of Republican propaganda and collective amnesia.
WOMAN: As it has Bill Clinton. Democrats’ propaganda?
DAVID: Not really. Clinton’s mistake was not in what he did, which
was minor, but in how he handled the aftermath. He lied
under oath, before a grand jury, about his relationship with
Paula Jones, one of his former employees in Arkansas. This
was in 1998, during a successful presidential term. But what
we really remember is his statement in a press conference
in the same year, concerning another woman in his White
House team: ‘I have never had sexual relations with Monica
Lewinsky. I’ve never had an affair with her.’ When this was
proven to be a lie, his honesty, integrity and moral character
were called into question. The eventual result was the
election success of George W. Bush in 2000, which... well
we’re still living with the consequences of that today.
Corrigé
The conversation is taking place in a radio studio, between
the presenter of a political or current affairs programme and
David Fergusson, a historian.
The book investigates why three American presidents –
Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton - got into trouble
for lying to the public.
All three presidents lied to the public and subsequently got
found out.
Nixon had to resign, Clinton stayed in power but his honesty,
integrity and moral character were put into question and the
Democrats lost the 2000 election. Reagan got away with it by
using his actor’s charm.
The presenter asks whether all politicians lie. David Fergusson
says that in politics you have to disguise your intentions and
fool the opposition but that outright lying is “at one extreme”.
He says that the public needs to trust its politicians, implying
that people are perhaps more influenced by what politicians say
than by what they do.
(p. 34)
Corrigé
L’article est pour un « tabloid », l’élève doit donc s’efforcer de
reproduire les caractéristiques de ce type de presse dans les
expressions utilisées et le ton général de son écrit. L’élève doit
aussi montrer qu’il a pris conscience du lectorat de ce type de
journal.
Dirty Bill busted again
Bill Clinton may be a great politician, but behind the family man
and easy-going demeanour lies an obsession with sex. This is
the shocking conclusion of another sex scandal that has just
emerged, this time with work partner Monica Lewinsky. Earlier
this year the Don Juan was heard saying that he had “never had
a sexual affair with her” but that was an outright lie. What does
this tell us about him? Do we want to be governed by someone
who cheats on his wife and lies to the entire world about it? Are
these the values that we want in our society? No, of course not!
If a man is more interested in his next sexual conquest than in

livre du professeur

doing his best for the people of the United States, then he is not
fit to govern. His wife Hilary has been as deceived as much as we
all have, and she’ll be telling him what we all want to tell him: get
out of the (white) house, Bill!
WORDWORK

(p. 34)

Corrigé
wordfile-p34-1a
1/b, 2. (Le présentateur de) Late Night Comment a invité David
Fergusson à participer à l’émission, 3/c, 4/b, 5/a, 6/a, 7/c, 8/b,
9/c, 10/c.
wordfile-p34-1b
1/b, 2. (The presenter of) Late Night Comment invited David
Fergusson to take part in the programme, 3/c, 4/b, 5/a, 6/a, 7/c,
8/b, 9/c, 10/c.
wordfile-p34-2
Truth: authentic, bona fide, genuine, indubitable, proof,
reality, unerring, veracious, verity.
Lies: bluff, counterfeit, deceit, ersatz, fabrication, fake, false,
falsehood, feign, forgery, tall story, whopper.


1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Expression
a false impression
The course of true love
never did run smooth.

Translation/explanation
une fausse impression
La route de l’amour a
toujours été un chemin
semé d’embûches.
showed one’s true colours. montrer son vrai visage.
un(e) ami(e) fidèle
a true friend
I swear to tell the truth, the Je jure de dire la vérité,
toute la vérité, et rien
whole truth, and nothing
que la vérité.
but the truth.
sous de faux prétextes
under false pretences
His behaviour give the lie to son comportement contredit
ses paroles
his words.
très fidèle.
true to life
un petit mensonge sans
a white lie
conséquence
devenir réalité.
come true
Il ment comme un arracheur
He is lying through his
de dents !
teeth!
fidèle à soi-même
true to form
Je me suis laissé(e) bercer
I was lulled into a false
par une fausse impression
sense of security.
de sécurité.
sonner vrai
ring true
le moment de vérité
the moment of truth
une fausse alarme
a false alarm
un (seul) faux pas
one false step
trop beau pour être vrai
too good to be true
Il tient parole.
He’s [...] true to his word.
il n’y a pas de meilleures
There’s many a true word
vérités que celles dites en
spoken in jest.
plaisantant.

(p. 34)
Corrigé
teamfile-p34-1
A. c.
The radio programme is called Late Night Comment and the
guest is a historian.
His latest book is called Lies, lies, lies and investigates why
three US presidents got into trouble for lying to the public.
In the past he has mainly written about modern warfare.
They talk about Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton.
It is said that political leaders are often deceptive and hide
their intentions but that outright lying is “at one extreme” that
the public does not accept.
teamfile-p34-2
A. 1969, 37th; He resigned after the Watergate
scandal. It was found out that his party had illegally spied on the
opposition (the Democrats) during the presidential elections.
B. The Vietnam war.
Cambodia is mentioned. The US wanted to bomb it because
members of the People’s Army of Vietnam and the Vietcong were
hiding there.
Nixon covered up the truth by claiming that the planes were
used for airlifting supplies.
Henry Kissinger.
The result of the bombing was death and destruction.
It was called the Watergate scandal after the Watergate Hotel
which was the campaign headquarters of the Democratic party
during the elections. The scandal involved the Republican party
breaking in to the headquarters with the intention of obtaining
information about the Democrats’ campaign.
The president was discredited when it was found out that he
had been lying when he said he knew nothing of what was going
on. He eventually resigned.
teamfile-p34-3
A. From 1981 to 1989, 40th, a movie actor
B. He seemed to get away with his untruths. He used his
folksy charm to appeal to the public’s sentimental side.
The Iran-Contra scandal. With money from arms sales to
Iran, the USA were funding the Contras, anti-communist rebels
in Nicaragua.
The official relationship was that of an embargo of the US on
Iran because the latter was supporting terrorism.
The Contras were anti-communist rebels in Nicaragua. The
guest is obviously against them because he says that they
frequently raped, tortured and murdered civilians.
In the first one he admitted part of the truth but denied the
other part, in his second appearance he admitted the whole
truth.
It is not very clear but seems to be a mix of Republican
propaganda and collective amnesia.
teamfile-p34-4
A. 1. From 1993 to 2001, 2. 42nd.
B. 1. He lied about his relationships with women he worked with.
2. 1998.
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012 21

2 Nobody’s Perfect
3. The first woman implicated was Paula Jones, a former
employee in Arkansas and Monica Lewinsky, a woman from his
White House team.
4. In the first case he lied under oath to a grand jury, and in the
second he lied to the press.
5. The American public put his honesty, integrity and moral
character into question.
6. The guest’s last remark “we’re still living with the consequences
of that today” obviously implies that, from his point of view, George
W. Bush’s presidency was not a good thing for the USA. The guest
almost certainly sympahises more with the Democrats.

PRONUNCIATION

(p. 34)

Corrigé
A. 1. a. recent, b. plate, eighty
2. a. war, more, b. hair, dare
3. a. lost, b. wastage, bridge
4. a. depth, b. control
5. a. honey, monkey, b. brick
B. (students’ own answers)

From Saint to Serial Killer

(p. 35)

Script
tapescript8-p35
MARY: Good evening. This is Mary Hamilton of Toronto radio news
and tonight we’re lucky to have with us Sergeant Jim Smyth
who arrested a man a few days ago who has been charged
with various crimes, notably theft, several sexual assaults
and the murder of two women. Now normally we wouldn’t
devote a programme to this sort of news, but the man is
Russell Williams, the commander of Canada’s largest and
most important air force base. He is also regarded as one of
the best pilots in the country and had the honour to pilot the
Queen’s plane on her last visit to Canada! So, Mr Smyth how
did you come to believe Russell Williams was a murderer?
JIM: Well, we had been working on a case where a man had been
spying on women and had taken photos of them half-naked.
MARY: A voyeur?
JIM: Yes, but he posted the photos on the net and we managed to
trace his IP address.
MARY: And it turned out to be Williams.
JIM: Absolutely.
MARY: You actually had evidence to prove it?
JIM: Yeah, we got a search warrant and went through everything
he owned.
MARY: And you found... ?
JIM: Well, among other things, a lot of women’s underwear:
300 pieces of lingerie, most of which he had stolen. And in
one place, we found lingerie that belonged to two women
who had been attacked, one woman who was missing and
another who had been murdered.
MARY: Didn’t you think you were just mistaken? That a man like
that couldn’t be involved in that sort of thing?
JIM: Oh no. It’s often men who seem to be beyond suspicion who
turn out to be the worst predators. They don’t all have greasy
hair and dirty raincoats, you know.
22 Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

MARY: Did you ask him where the underwear came from? I mean
it could have been his wife’s.
JIM: It could have been, of course. But it wasn’t. He said it was
all his because he liked wearing it himself – which turned
out to be true. But we tested some pieces for DNA and we
found not only his DNA on them but also that of a number of
women who had been attacked, including one who had been
murdered. Then, on his computer, we found crime-scene
snapshots and two videos. We also matched tyreprints from
his SUV to tracks left in the snow near one of the victim’s
houses.
MARY: And all that was enough to arrest him?
JIM: Oh yes. He tried to talk his way out of it at first, but he soon
realised he was cornered and it didn’t take long before he
confessed. He said he’d admit everything in order to save his
wife from any further distress.
MARY: So you’re sure you’ve got the right man.
JIM: There’s absolutely no doubt. You see, he told us where to find
the woman who had disappeared.
MARY: I see. So she can now give evidence against him too?
JIM: Oh no. She had been dead for almost a week when we found
her.

Help on important words, important questions (p. 35)
Corrigé
– Sergeant Jim Smyth/Smith (a policeman)
– Russell Williams, a serial killer
– Williams spied on women and took photos of them. He posted
the photos on the net. He attacked two other women and killed
another two. He stole their underwear and took photos of the
crime scene.
Police working on the case of the women who were spied on,
traced Williams’ IP address through the photos on the net. They
searched his home and found women’s underwear, the DNA
of the four women involved in the cases of attacks, murder
and disappearance, and snapshots of the crime scenes.
Furthermore, the tyreprints of Williams’ SUV matched those
found at a crime scene. Williams confessed and told the police
where to find the woman who had disappeared. The police found
the woman, who was dead.

Listen and write a summary

(p. 35)
Corrigé
Mary Hamilton, journaliste à Toronto Radio News interviewe
le sergent Jim Smyth qui est à l’origine de l’arrestation d’un
homme ayant commis divers délits et crimes (vols, agressions
sexuelles et le meurtre de deux femmes). Ce qui rend cette
affaire d’autant plus surprenante est que l’homme inculpé, le
commandant de la base militaire la plus importante du Canada,
est considéré comme un des meilleurs pilotes du pays et a ainsi
eut l’honneur de piloter l’avion transportant la Reine Elizabeth II
lors de son dernier voyage officiel au Canada.
Mary veut savoir comment la police en est venue à inculper
Williams. Le sergent lui explique que la police enquêtait sur une
affaire impliquant un homme qui espionnait des femmes et les
prenait en photos alors qu’elles étaient à demi-nues. C’était non
seulement un voyeur mais malheureusement pour lui il publia

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les photos sur Internet, ce qui permit à la police de le retrouver
grâce à son adresse IP. Un mandat de perquisition fut obtenu et
tout ce qu’il possédait fut scrupuleusement fouillé. On découvrit
de nombreux sous-vêtements féminins dont la plupart avaient
été volés et dont quatre d’entre eux appartenaient à deux
femmes qui avaient été agressées, une qui était portée disparue
et une autre qui était morte.
La police ne fut pas surprise de l’identité du présumé coupable,
car les pires prédateurs s’avèrent souvent être des hommes qui
semblent au-dessus de tout soupçon.
Lorsque les policiers lui demandèrent l’origine de ces sousvêtements, il leur répondit qu’ils lui appartenaient et qu’il les
portait, ce qui était vrai. Cependant lors de la recherche d’ADN
sur certains de ces sous-vêtements, il ne fut pas trouvé que le
sien mais aussi celui de certaines femmes dont celui de celle
qui avait disparu et de celle qui était morte. De plus sur son
ordinateur furent découverts des clichés de scènes de crime et
deux vidéos. Et finalement les empreintes de pneus de son 4×4
correspondaient à celles trouvées sur la neige près de la maison
d’une des victimes.
Il essaya de nier mais avoua assez rapidement afin de ne pas
faire souffrir sa femme plus longtemps. La police est sûre
d’avoir le vrai coupable car il leur indiqua même où se trouvait le
corps de la femme disparue qui était morte depuis presque une
semaine lorsqu’on la découvrit.

Language Corner

(p. 36-37)

Advice and reproach
Reprise de structures qui devraient être connues et maîtrisées.
Corrigé
Observation/réflexion
a. ought to, b. can’t, c. shouldn’t (+ have).
should et ought to: you ought not to have come... you
should be home... On rappellera que traditionnellement ought
to implique de la part de l’énonciateur une plus forte contrainte
morale.
« Tu n’aurais pas dû venir ici aujourd’hui, ma douce. Ce n’est
pas prudent. » « Tu ne peux pas rester ici. Tu devrais être chez
toi. » En français c’est le verbe « devoir » qui porte la marque
du temps.
Application/expression
a. You should have kept her away.
b. You should have told me how.
c. You should/shouldn’t have sent for Miles’s brother. (Tout
dépend du message que veux passer l’énonciateur et de ce que
la co-énonciatrice a fait ou non).
d. You should be kind to me, Sam.
e. Now, Iva, you shouldn’t.
Grammaticalement parlant, rien ne s’oppose à ce que l’on
remplace should par ought to dans tous ces énoncés.
Les énoncés dépendront des opinions personnelles des
élèves. On pourra leur demander de se placer sur un plan de
forte moralité, auquel cas ought to serait préféré à should.
Exemples possibles :

a. Nixon ought to have been tried for war crimes.
b. He ought to have apologized to the American public.
c. He shouldn’t have tried to cover up the break-in. That was a
terrible mistake.
d. Politicians ought to tell people the truth/ought to be punished
for lying to the people.
e. Reagan ought to have been made to pay for his “untruths”.
f. Clinton ought to have been impeached and removed from
office for lying under oath.

The uses of “for”
Corrigé
Observation/réflexion
Les diverses natures de for (préposition, conjonction) sont
source de contre-sens pour les élèves. Les diverses traductions
de la préposition ne le sont pas moins... Le but de la phase de
réflexion est d’attirer l’attention des élèves sur ce problème
apparemment anodin.
for = because : énoncé a.
for fait partie d’un verbe à particule : piège pour attirer l’attention
des élèves sur cette impossibilité : for n’est pas un adverbe !
for introduit la notion de durée : énoncé h.
for introduit la notion d’échange : énoncé g.
for introduit la notion de but : énoncés c. et e.
for introduit la notion de cause : énoncé f.
Les énoncés b. et d. n’entrent dans aucune de ces catégories.
Il s’agit de structures prépositionnelles (transitives indirectes)
correspondant à des structures transitives directes en français.
(attendre qqn ou qch., envoyer chercher qqn).
for n’est conjonction que dans l’énoncé a. (= car).
Question dont le but est d’inciter les élèves à faire leurs
propres recherches dans ce domaine comme dans d’autres.
Nous conseillons de les orienter vers le dictionnaire des presses
universitaires d’Oxford (OUP) Advanced Learner’s Dictionary.
Application/expression
a. She was waiting for Sam.
b. She had obviously been there for quite a long time.
c. She was still pretty for her age.
d. She came for comfort.
e. She was angry with him for not telling her how to keep Iva
away.
f. He stopped touching her hair for the inner door had just
opened, revealing Iva.
g. Iva was wearing black for she was in mourning.
h. He was impatient for Iva to leave.
i. He was annoyed with her for coming to his office so soon after
her husband’s death.

The genitive
Occasion de faire le point en contexte sur les emplois de ‘s et la
notion de possession.
Corrigé
Observation/réflexion
Toutes les occurrences de ‘s et de pronoms possessifs.
Rapport de possession : Effie Perine’s brown eyes/as
irritable as his/His partner’s/Miles’s brother.
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012 23

2 Nobody’s Perfect
génitif incomplet : his partner’s (desk)
his = Sam’s voice. Exemple : Effie Perine’s brown eyes opened
wide and her voice was as irritable as Sam’s.
Génitif générique : a lot of women’s underwear
the commander of Canada’s largest and most important air
force base.
Application/expression
a. David Fergusson’s latest book deals with the most famous
presidential lies.
b. He considers, rightly or wrongly, that Clinton’s lies are less
serious than Nixon’s.
c. Among America’s recent presidents, it seems George W. Bush
is the most detested.
d. Russel Williams’s behaviour is clearly that of a sadist, not a
hero’s.
e. When women’s underwear was discovered in his home, he
said it was his wife’s.
f. He seems to be one of Canada’s most dangerous predators.
g. The tyre tracks found were definitely his/his car’s.

The order of events
Travail sur les temps grammaticaux.
Être capable d’expliquer la chronologie d’événements fait partie
des compétences listées dans le CERL.
Corrigé
Observation/réflexion
arrested : prétérit
had been working/had been spying : pluperfect en be + -ing (dit
« continu »)
had taken : pluperfect
posted/managed : prétérit
found : prétérit
had been attacked : pluperfect passif
we had been working : l’énonciateur insiste sur le bilan
du travail que son équipe avait accompli au moment de
l’identification du prédateur recherché.
a man had been spying : l’énonciateur insiste sur le comportement du prédateur antérieur à son identification.
had taken : simple bilan de l’activité du prédateur antérieurement
à son identification.


X X

X

X

X X X
d

b

c

a

P

ligne bleue = working, ligne jaune = spying, xxx = taken, post
d = attack
b = manage
c = find
a = arrested, (distance a-P : a few days)
P = moment de parole, présent
Application/expression
a. In his home there were 300 pieces of women’s underwear,
most of which he had stolen.
b. Some of them belonged to a woman who had been missing
and to another who had been murdered.
24 Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

c. There we found traces of DNA from a woman who(m) we had
been looking for in vain for months.
d. He told us where to find the body of a missing woman/a
woman who had disappeared/a woman who had gone missing.
e. When we found her, she had been dead for nearly a week.

The Bigger They Come…

(p. 38-39)
(p. 39)

Corrigé
The complete saying is “The bigger they come, the harder
they fall.” It refers to the danger of success and celebrity. The
farther up the ladder you climb, the worse you will hurt yourself
if you fall off. It illustrates what happened to the people shown
here who all reached the top of the ladder in their respective
careers before undergoing dramatic reversals in their lives.
Jennifer Capriati, a tennis champion, suffered from lack of selfconfidence and depression which led her to petty crime and
drugs; Tonya Harding, an Olympic figure skater, let ambition get
the better of her; Marion Jones, a world champion athlete, gave
in to temptation and took drugs; O. J. Simpson, a hero to millions
of American sports fans, lost his popularity because of his
alleged role in his wife’s murder, and Tiger Woods’s adulterous
relationships destroyed his image.
(students’ own answers)
Useful expressions :
– I would give X 8 points because he/she couldn’t resist the
temptation to..., which I can easily understand.
– I’d be tempted to give only 2 points to X because he/she has no
excuse whatsoever for behaving that way.
– I’d be hard on X and only give him/her 3 points since he/she
didn’t do anything to prevent his/her downfall.
– I would give X maximum points because I reckon he/she can’t
be held responsible for...
– I’d give him/her 9 out of 10 because what happened to him/her
could happen to anybody.

PROJECT

(p. 39)
Le projet ici proposé doit bien évidemment mettre en évidence
l’activité langagière d’interaction orale. On suggèrera aux
élèves jouant le rôle du/de la journaliste d’adopter un ton bien
précis (au choix, et entre autres : une compassion exagérée
en allant systématiquement dans le sens du « pauvre » héros
déchu, ou bien un ton marqué par la provocation et la mise en
difficulté du héros se trouvant régulièrement poussé dans ses
retranchements, devant ainsi se justifier et prouver sa bonne
volonté par exemple). Le but est clairement de se rapprocher
au plus possible d’une situation crédible et « réelle » qui fera
réagir les autres élèves et suscitera ainsi un débat éventuel
sur la déontologie journalistique (voir chapitre 5). Assuronsnous également que chacun des deux participants s’exprime de
manière équivalente en terme de quantité de paroles produites,
le journaliste ne se contentant pas de poser des questions
consciencieusement préparées, mais se permettant aussi
d’interrompre son interlocuteur, de commenter ses propos, de
réorienter la discussion etc. En somme, une véritable interaction

livre du professeur

incluant éléments langagiers et tout ce qui relève du « body
language » également.

Satirical Cartoons

(p. 40-41)

(p. 40)
Corrigé
The basic messages in each cartoon are as follows.
• Gillray is insisting on the greed of both France and Britain.
They each think they have the right to rule the world and, when
forced to divide it between them, find there is hardly enough to
go round.
• The wolf has Hitler’s moustache and a German-style uniform,
so it is obvious that Germany is being equated with the wolf of
the fairytale who preys on smaller animals. Tex Avery is also
making fun of the exaggerated German “goose-step”, the style
of marching that characterised the German army at the time.
• Gary Trudeau showed what he thought went on behind closed
doors in the White House at the time of the Watergate scandal.
He put the emphasis on dishonesty and intrigue.
• Gerald Scarfe’s unique style is used here to suggest that Mrs
Thatcher had (or should have had?) nightmares about her order
to sink the Argentinian cruiser the General Belgrano. The order
she gave for a nuclear submarine to attack it was thought by
many to be unlawful because the cruiser claimed it was outside
the exclusion zone.

PROJECT

(p. 41)
Ce projet propose de créer un dessin satirique (photomontage
possible) illustrant les déboires d’un homme politique. La
presse regorgeant de scandales impliquant des politiciens, les
élèves ne devraient pas avoir de mal à trouver quelqu’un qui
sera l’objet de leur projet.
L’objectif sera d’utiliser les outils et axes méthodologiques qu’ils
auront mis en évidence lors de l’étude de ce magazine et des
différents documents étudiés : choix du dessin et graphisme,
choix des couleurs, choix des mots, public visé, etc.
La présentation des projets à la classe pourra donner lieu à
une évaluation chiffrée qui devra s’appuyer sur les dessins
(respect de la consigne du projet, conception fidèle aux critères
du dessin satirique, humour sous-jacent perceptible...) et sur
la prestation orale de chaque groupe lors de la présentation de
son projet (phonologie, intonation, conviction, argumentation et
justification des choix).

L’activité supplémentaire
Une fiche de travail est téléchargeable : artfile-p.40. Il s’agit d’un
texte sur les cartoons.
Corrigé
artfile-p.40
The dictionary definition of a cartoon is “a simple drawing
showing the features of its subjects in a humorously exaggerated
way”. Originally, however, a cartoon meant something quite
different: a preparatory drawing. For example, the “Leonardo
Cartoon”, owned by the National Gallery in London, is not in the
least funny; it is a study for a religious painting.

It was the artist John Leech, in 1843, who first used the term
to mean a humorous drawing or satirical sketch. The word
gained currency and the genre became one of the earliest to
cross all class barriers. Following the growing popularity of
magazines like Punch and New Yorker, which published a good
many cartoons, the comic strip arrived – a series of cartoons
that tell a story. They originated in late 19th century American
newspapers and had text attached in speech bubbles or
captions. From here it was only a short step to the comic book
which, in some countries, is considered to be an art form on a
par with all others.
A cartoon is not only a fixed image. It is also the word used to
designate animated films (where the characters are drawn over
and over again to simulate movement). The primary aim of this
genre is entertainment rather than satire or social comment,
although numerous propaganda cartoons were produced during
World War II and, more recently, cartoons like The Simpsons and
South Park, have reflected current political and social issues
in their plot lines and have caused considerable controversy,
notably among conservative elements in American society.
South Park, in particular, with its bad language, violence and
emphasis on satire and parody, has provoked strong reactions,
and has shown how cartoons can still have some influence
despite the fact that they are incredibly low-tech when
compared to the computer animations that are currently filling
the movie theaters.

Ateliers

(p. 42-44)

Atelier 1

(p. 42)
Script
dvdscript-p42
NIXON: I want to say this to the television audience. I’ve made my
mistakes but in all of my years of public life I have never
profited, never profited from public service.
NARRATOR: He was the first American president to resign from the
job. Welcome to watchmojo.com and today we’ll be learning
more about the life and accomplishments of Richard Nixon.
NIXON: People have got to know whether or not their president’s a
crook. Well, I’m not a crook. I’ve earned everything I’ve got.
NARRATOR: Richard Milhous Nixon was born January 9th 1913 in
Yorba Linda, California. During his modest and conservative
Quaker upbringing he became a skilled debater. He won
a scholarship to the Duke University School of Law and
graduated in 1937. After attempting to join the FBI, Nixon
practised law in Whittier, California. In 1938 he met Pat Ryan
and they married two years later.
NIXON: Pat doesn’t have a mink coat but she does have a
respectable Republican cloth coat and I always tell her that
she’d look good in anything.
NARRATOR: In 1942 Nixon enrolled in the US Navy. After serving in
the Pacific theatre of World War II, and rising to Lieutenant
Commander, he returned to civilian life in 1946. Nixon and
his family then moved back to Whittier where he ran as
a Republican for Congress. He won and two years later he
was easily reelected. During his congressional term, he
rose to national prominence as a member of the House UnLivre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012 25

2 Nobody’s Perfect
American Activities Committee when he proved instrumental
in breaking a prominent Soviet spy case. At the end of 1949,
Nixon ran for the United States Senate. During this campaign
he was given his enduring nickname, Tricky Dick. In 1952
Dwight D. Eisenhower chose the 39-year-old senator as
his vice-presidential candidate. Scandal hit when Nixon
was accused of maintaining a slush fund of contributions.
Nixon defended himself to sixteen million Americans with a
televised address on September 23rd 1952.
NIXON: Black and white, spotted, and our little girl Trisha, the sixyear-old, named it Checkers. And you know, the kids, like all
kids, love the dog and I just want to say this right now that,
regardless of what they say about it, we’re going to keep it.
NARRATOR: The public responded favourably to the Checkers speech
and the Eisenhower-Nixon ticket won the election that year.
During his two terms as vice-president, Nixon managed
important foreign and domestic issues. The awesomely
high-profile journeys overseas – one example was his visit
to the Soviet Union where he spontaneously debated Nikita
Khrushchev on the merits of capitalism versus communism.
In 1960, Nixon ran for president against Democrat John F.
Kennedy. The impressive-ended series of televised debates
was a turning point in the campaign. Nixon’s physical
appearance compared to Kennedy’s was sickly, and this
helped lead to his narrow defeat in the election. Nixon then
returned to California to write. In 1962 he ran for State Governor
and his loss signalled to many the end of his political career.
He did not run for president in 1964 and Lyndon Johnson
humiliated the Republicans at the polls. Despite everything,
Nixon remained a GOP star and in 1968 he made another run
at the presidency. With Johnson’s withdrawal, the ongoing
Vietnam war and the assassination of star Democrat Robert F.
Kennedy, it was a turbulent time.
NIXON: This is the first time in the history of this country that
a presidential candidate could honestly come before an
American audience and say that respect for the United
States around the world is in jeopardy.
NARRATOR: The Republicans capitalised on this and on November
5th 1968 Richard Nixon was elected the 37th president of the
United States.
NIXON: Having lost a close one eight years ago and having won a
close one this year, I can say this: winning’s a lot more fun.
NARRATOR: While in office, Nixon dealt with an unstable economy
and oversaw reforms in welfare, civil rights and more.
In foreign affairs, Nixon helped end the Vietnam war,
reestablished contact with China and improved relations
with the Soviet Union. In 1972, Nixon was reelected in a
landslide victory. However, his undoing was already in the
works.
ANNOUNCER: The Democratic National Committee is trying to solve
a spy mystery. It began before dawn Saturday when five
intruders were captured by police inside the offices of the
Committee in Washington. The five men carried cameras and
apparently had planted electronic bugs.
NARRATOR: A few months prior to his reelection, a group of men
linked to the Nixon administration was arrested at the
26 Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

Democratic Party headquarters in Washington’s Watergate
complex and what followed was one of the biggest
scandals in presidential history. The Watergate scandal was
revealed as a cover-up by the Nixon administration to hide
involvement in illegal activities against their opponents. It
ultimately led to Nixon’s resignation from the presidency on
August 9th 1974.
NIXON: I have never been a quitter. To leave office before my term
is completed is abhorrent to every instinct in my body.
NARRATOR: Nixon was granted a full pardon by the Ford
administration a month later. A few years later, he was paid
600,000 dollars by British TV personality David Frost for a
string of in-depth television interviews.
NIXON: Well, when the President does it, that means that it is not
illegal.
FROST: By definition.
NIXON: Exactly.
NARRATOR: Between 45 and 50 million people watched the FrostNixon interviews when they aired in 1977. The last decades
of Nixon’s life were spent rebuilding his reputation as a
best-selling author, senior statesman and foreign policy
specialist. On April 22nd 1994, Nixon died after suffering
a massive stroke ten months after his wife’s passing. He
is remembered by many as the face of the embarrassing
Watergate scandal. However, Richard Nixon’s contributions
to world peace also helped shape his legacy.
NIXON: As I leave you, I want you to know: just think how much
you’re going to be missing me. You don’t have Nixon to kick
around any more.
Corrigé
(questions du manuel)
He is shown just after his inauguration as President in 1968,
during his celebrated 1960 TV debate with Kennedy, meeting
Khrushchev, meeting Chairman Mao, and during his televised
resignation speech of 1974.
a. He was accused of maintaining a slush fund (i.e. in this
case, making personal use of contributions to the election
campaign and not only being reimbursed for expenses, which
was absolutely legal, but also receiving gifts, which, although
not strictly illegal, would have opened him up to accusations
of corruption). He dealt with it by speaking to the nation on
television and protesting his innocence. His mention of the dog,
Checkers, and of his children, was a clever maneuver to win
people over to his side.
b. In 1968, the Democrats (who were in power under Johnson)
were having a hard time because the USA was getting a bad name
because of its intervention in Vietnam. What’s more, President
Johnson withdrew from the election and the Democrats no
longer had Robert Kennedy either. In 1972, the Republicans
were having a successful term of office because the Vietnam
war had ended, there were improved relations with China and an
improved economic and social situation internally.
a. It shows two characteristics that are often mentioned as
being typical of Americans: naivety and sentimentality.
b. This shows that, even as early as 1960, a politician’s
appearance and demeanour was beginning to be as important

livre du professeur

as his policies. Presenting an image of cheerfulness, good
health and good looks is still vital for American politicians.
c. It shows how Americans often fail to see how other nations can
possibly regard them with anything but admiration and – in the
case of “aid” or intervention – gratitude, and that when they do
realise that they are not always considered the “good guys”, they
will go a long way in trying to rectify the situation. Nixon’s speech
about the image of the USA worldwide triggered a massive reaction.
(students’ own answers)
dvdfile-p42
A. 1937 He graduated from Duke University.
1939 He got married.
1942 He enrolled in the Navy.
1946 He returned to civilian life and moved back to Whittier.
1949 He ran for the Senate.
1952 He became vice-president under Eisenhower.
1960 He ran for President against John F. Kennedy and lost.
1962 He ran for State Governor of California and lost.
1968 He ran a second time for President and won.
1972 He was reelected President.
1974 He resigned from the presidency.
1977 The Frost-Nixon interviews were televised.
B. 1/a, 2/c; 3/c, 4/b.
C. 1. Grand Old Party, 2. (students’ own answers)

Atelier 2

(p. 43)

Corrigé
Both passages are extracted from Lance Armstrong’s
autobiography It’s Not About the Bike, published in 2001. Passage A
is the back cover of the book. Passage B is an extract from the book.
a. Lance Armstrong was diagnosed with testicular cancer in
October 1996. His chance of survival was estimated at 40%.
b. No, it didn’t. He never stopped training and even drew strength
from riding intensely.
c. He entered the Tour de France only 16 months after going out
of hospital and he became a father.
d. (possible answers) Determination, courage, will power,
optimism, nerve, resolution, strength of character, perseverance,
tenacity, strong-mindedness, stubbornness.
a. Lance Armstrong says that cycling makes him feel
at peace. When cycling, he is not focusing on his problems,
however serious they may be. Tiredness makes him forget for
a while that he is ill.
b. He is running away from illness and death. Riding gives him
the temporary sensation of not being so ill.
c. Both illness and competition are physically hard. Fighting
against cancer can be compared to a race: dependence on time,
progress reports, checkpoints, blood tests...

Atelier 3
(p. 44)
Les ateliers 3, 4 et 5 portent sur des personnages mondialement
reconnus comme hors du commun et dont l’action ou le travail
ont marqué l’histoire du monde ou l’actualité récente.
Corrigé
La vie et les exploits sportifs de Lance Armstrong sont connus
de tous. Après avoir fait l’admiration du plus grand nombre, des

rumeurs sont venues jeter le doute sur la façon dont le champion
a obtenu ses victoires. Le héros a toujours nié avoir triché et n’a
pas hésité à traîner ses accusateurs devant les tribunaux. Notre
but n’est pas de prendre parti, mais de donner aux élèves une
occasion de faire des recherches, de comparer les opinions,
d’en rendre compte et éventuellement de donner leur sentiment
personnel. (Entraînement à la seconde partie de l’examen oral).

Atelier 4

(p. 44)
Corrigé
Diviser la classe en quatre groupes dont chacun sera à son tour
subdivisé en deux parties : les « pour » et les « contre ».
Chaque groupe sera chargé d’effectuer les recherches
nécessaires sur chacune des quatre personnalités présentées
ici, sachant qu’aucune d’entre elles n’a laissé l’opinon publique
indifférente. Les élèves seront donc encouragés à prendre
parti en s’appuyant sur les faits que leurs recherches auront
permis de mettre à jour. Gageons que ce sera également pour
eux l’occasion d’acquérir de nombreuses connaissances et
éventuellement de changer d’avis sur les personnes concernées.
Organiser les présentations sous forme de débat. Les groupes
auditeurs pourront être invités à prendre parti à la fin de chaque
présentation.

Atelier 5

(p. 44)
Corrigé
La problématique offerte ici est la même que celle des deux
ateliers précédents. Avant de rédiger le court essai, les élèves
devront ici aussi effectuer des recherches pour compléter les
informations fournies dans les guidelines, et dont certains
ignoreront le contenu. Les inviter à formuler leurs sentiments
(surprise, admiration, désapprobation, etc.).

Class Project

(p. 45)

Si l’on souhaite évaluer ce projet, on peut utiliser les critères
suivants pour établir une fiche d’évaluation (avec l’aide des
élèves, cela peut même devenir un exercice très intéressant
et leur permettre de construire leur projet autour d’axes très
précis).
• Demander aux élèves de réutiliser un certain nombre de mots
nouveaux appris au cours de l’étude des supports proposés
dans le chapitre, ainsi que des structures grammaticales et,
bien entendu, des mots de liaison : leur demander un nombre
précis de mots/structures à réutiliser afin d’établir un barème le
moins subjectif possible.
• Il faudrait également ajouter des critères plus pragmatiques
tels que la qualité de l’argumentation, la clarté de l’exposé, le ton
utilisé, la conviction et les efforts pour utiliser des « gap-fillers »
et pour avoir un anglais qui se rapproche le plus de celui d’un
natif (schéma intonatif et phonologie).

Mock exam

(p. 46-47)

Cette épreuve peut être proposée dans son intégralité aux
élèves des séries ES et S. Les dix premières questions de la
partie « compréhension de l’écrit » et la première question du
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012 27

2 Nobody’s Perfect
sujet d’expression écrite peuvent être proposées aux élèves des
séries technologiques.
Corrigé
Comprehension de l’écrit
LV1/LV2 (B1)
1. a. Rudolph Jordache and an elderly man.
1. b. • Rudolph Jordache is obviously a rich and famous person.
The other character is a lawyer.
• Nothing precise is said about Rudolph’s job. The old man is a
lawyer, probably retired (“in my time”).
• As Rudolph mentions dollars, he may be American. The old
man is probably French as the scene takes place in the south
of France.
• Nothing is said about Rudolph’s health. That of the old man
seems rather poor (coughs a lot, wipes his lips...).
2. The scene is set in the south of France, on the French Riviera.
3. Rudolph is visiting the old man.
4. Rudolph’s brother was murdered.
5. Dividing his brother’s estate has caused “maximum acrimony”.
6. Danovic is obviously the man who murdered Rudolph’s
brother.
7. The young man intends to kill his father’s murderer.
8. Rudolph is trying to avoid his nephew(‘s) becoming a murderer
himself and getting into serious trouble, including running the
risk of being killed too.
9. Rudolph wants the the lawyer to help him find someone who
will agree to execute Danovic before his nephew finds him.
10. He is prepared to pay a “professional” killer and the lawyer
for helping him to find such a man.
LV1 (B2)
11. Rudolph refers to the old lawyer being involved with the
milieu “in his time”.

28 Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

12. “I sympathize with your position, Monsieur Jordache,” he
said, “but as you can imagine, it is not something that can be
arranged overnight, if at all...”
“I will see what I can do. At the very best, I can only hope to
communicate with a gentleman who might just possibly be
interested and have him get in touch with you. I hope you
understand that would have to be the beginning and the end of
the matter for me.”
13. The “job” obviously consists in having Danovic killed.
14. His services = killing Danovic.
Your services = getting in touch with the person who might be
interested in taking on the job of killing Danovic, convincing him
to do the job, and arranging payment for his services.
15. Rudolph is afraid that his nephew might find Danovic before
someone else does and put his own life on the line while trying
to avenge his father.
16. “Steadily” reveals that Rudolph is determined to have
Danovic “taken out” and that he is ready to pay whatever price
is necessary to have his way.
17. He is certainly not used to it. It may be the first time
he has made such a decision in a lifetime of honesty and
righteousness.
“In the silence Rudolph reflected painfully on what he was
doing. He was committing an evil act. All his life he had believed
in goodness and morality and he was now committing an evil
act.”
18. Either he does nothing to prevent what his nephew is about
to do, and he lets him become a murderer, or he acts to stop
the course of events and becomes a murderer himself... by
proxy.
Expression écrite
(students own answers)

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3 The Grass is Greener...
Pages d’ouverture

(p. 50-51)
Comme la double page le montre, le chapitre est dédié aux
raisons qui poussent les gens à quitter leur pays d’origine pour
aller s’installer ailleurs dans l’espoir d’une vie meilleure. Ceci
est l’occasion de quelques rappels historiques que les supports
choisis illustrent clairement.
(p. 51)
Corrigé
The complete saying has several possible versions: The
grass is (always) greener on the far side of the hill; the grass is
greener on the other side of the fence...
Pictures 1 and 3 are of the USA. Picture 1 shows Chinese
immigrants panning for gold in California during the Gold
Rush (after 1849). The vast majority of Chinese immigrants
were men. They emigrated for economic reasons: there was
widespread poverty in China resulting largely from British policy
regarding opium. Picture 3 is a photo taken on a freeway in San
Diego, near the Mexican border. The signs still exist but were
first erected in the 1990s when a lot of Mexicans trying to enter
the USA illegally would run across the freeway trying to escape
from border guards, without looking at the traffic. Many were
killed by drivers who could not stop in time. Since then, these
“caution” signs have been used by both pro-immigrant and
anti-immigrant groups in their various campaigns: on teeshirts,
banners, posters, etc.
Both pictures illustrate the belief, held by many who are living in
difficult circumstances, that things will be better if they move to
a different place.
Picture 3 was taken in Berlin on the occasion of the
commemoration of the fall of the Berlin Wall. It has to be
remembered that Berlin had been divided into American, British,
French and Soviet sectors at the end of the Second World War.
Berlin itself was surrounded by “East Germany” under Soviet
control. So, when the “iron curtain” came down, Berlin became
the obvious place for people to escape to the west, by passing
from the Soviet sector to another sector. The wall was built by
the East Germans to stop this happening. Checkpoints were
set up along the wall to allow authorised travellers to pass. In
this picture of a busy Berlin street, two women dressed in the
uniforms of border guards stand where the wall originally stood,
in front of one of the old checkpoints.

Almost There

(p. 52-53)
(p. 52)

Corrigé
(students’ own answers)

(p. 52)
Corrigé
The two main characters are Eilis and Georgina. They are
Irish. They are on a boat headed for New York.
Eilis believes that she will not have any problems entering
the United States because she has a full work permit instead of
a temporary one and because Father Flood will be waiting for her
on her arrival.
Georgina is surprised because it is no longer easy to get a
full work permit. She believes the priest must know someone.
However, Eilis might still be put in quarantine if she doesn’t do
something about her wretched appearance. Georgina tries to
change Eilis’s physical appearance by making her up, arranging
her hair and getting her to wear more appropriate clothes.
Georgina helps Eilis choose the most appropriate clothes:
a dress and shoes that are plain and simple. She also tells her
how she must carry her coat and how to look more mature.
Georgina is transforming her from an innocent-looking, hungry
and frightened young girl into a more mature and experienced
young woman.
Georgina is used to crossing the Atlantic and knows from
experience who is going to be stopped and who isn’t. Eilis on
the other hand has no experience of what is going to happen
and does not realise that her passport and papers might not be
enough to get through immigration.
Georgina advises her not to cough and to keep her eyes wide
open so that the doctors will not stop her to check if she has
tuberculosis or an eye disease.
Georgina believes that the United States is a land of freedom
and if you are brave and hard-working enough you will be able to
succeed in life. Now that Eilis has reached the United States, she
should be brave enough to do what she wants.
When Eilis looks at herself in the mirror she is greatly
surprised to see that she is rather good-looking. On the one
hand, she believes that putting make-up on would make her
life easier as she would be able to go out more freely and meet
new people. On the other hand, the make-up would hide her true
personality and people would not know who she truly was.

The extract is set in the past. This is obvious because Ellis
Island is no longer a reception centre for immigrants. Other clues
are:
– Eilis is travelling by boat (“back in the cabin” and reference to
a “trunk”). Rare are those who cross the Atlantic by boat these
days, except on luxury liners.
– doctors on Ellis Island are afraid of TB (tuberculosis), a disease
that is rare and curable today but was rife and often fatal in the
past.
– Eilis uses “a thin cake of make-up” and “rouge”. These days,
a young woman would not use the same terminology. “Cake
make-up” was thicker than current “bases” and “blusher” is the
term used for “rouge”.
10 The doctors checked for any kind of diseases, and if you
were suspected of having one you were stopped and could be
put in quarantine. You were also supposed to have a job waiting
for you.
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012 29

3 The Grass is Greener...
11 She is a young, rather plain Irish girl. She is poor (she is
hungry) and was raised a Catholic. She is not alone in the world
and can rely on the help of a priest to find work when she arrives
(“the help of a priest”).

(p. 52)
Corrigé
Conseiller aux élèves d’utiliser le contenu de la Toolbox et des
fiches lexicales. Suggérer d’utiliser les informations contenues
dans le texte pour décrier les conditions du voyage, faire
imaginer l’attitude des autorités à l’arrivée, les questions
posées, l’état nerveux dans lequel Eilis se trouvait, etc. En fait
le contenu de cette lettre est en grande partie présente dans le
passage étudié.
WORDWORK

(p. 53)

Corrigé
wordfile-p53-1a/1b
A. 1/g. Father Flood
2/c. She made Eilis open her suitcase and show her what clothes
she had brought so that she could select suitable attire
3/i. we don’t want you looking like a tart
4/h. nothing fancy
5/e. red floral
6/j. nothing fancy
7/f. the water on this boat has made it stand out
8/d. arranging to have her trunk carried on deck
9/b. comb her hair straighter now that the brushing was done
10/a. so that it could be tied back into a bun
11/k. don’t cough
B. (exemples)
1. She made Eilis open her suitcase and show her what clothes
she had brought
2. She chose ... and selected
3. insisting that the shoes would have to be polished.
4. wear your coat ... don’t wash (et tous les autres emplois de
l’impératif)
5. getting Eilis to comb her hair out
6. Georgina made Eilis sit on the bottom of the bunk and turn her
face towards the light and close her eyes.
7. When she finished, she sent Eilis into the bathroom
8. ...and told her to...
wordfile-p53-2
A. Upon arrival in the United States, all persons are subject
to inspection by a US Customs Officer. The airline personnel
will show you to the inspection area. You will queue up in an
inspection line and then speak with a customs officer. If you are
a U.S. citizen, special lines may be available to you. If you are not
a U.S. citizen, you should use the lanes marked for non-citizens.
If you are a U.S. citizen, the officer will ask you for your passport
and Customs Declaration form, verify your citizenship, and
welcome you back to the United States. You may be asked to
proceed to a second screening point with your belongings for
additional questioning. If you are an alien, the Officer must
determine why you are coming to the United States, what
documents you may require, if you have those documents, and
how long you should be allowed to stay in the United States. If
30 Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

you are allowed to proceed, the officer will stamp your passport
and customs declaration form and issue a completed form that
will show you how long you are allowed to stay. Officers may
decide that you should not be permitted to enter the United
States. You will either be placed in detention, or temporarily held
until return flight arrangements can be made.
B. 1/d, 2/a, 3/d, 4/e, 5/f, 6/b, 7/c, 8/i, 9/j, 10/h.
(p. 53)
Corrigé
teamfile-p53-1

a. She is not worried as she knows that Father Flood will be
meeting her on the dock and she is in possession of a full work
permit.
b. wretched, innocent, frightened, hungry, older, good-looking
and nervous. Some of these suggest that the crossing was very
rough.
a. childlike / starved / inexperienced / trusting / intimidated
/ fearful. The adjectives reveal the contrast between Eilis on the
one hand who is naive and knows nothing about what is going
to happen on arrival, and Georgina who is more experienced and
straightforward.
b. The two women seem to get along despite their differences.
Georgina helps Eilis choose her clothes (“She chose a white
dress”), gives her advice on her hairstyle (“don’t wash your hair
again”), and puts on her make-up with care (“For twenty minutes
she worked slowly”). She calls her “darling” which suggests a
friendly relationship.
First of all, Eilis has low self-esteem. She is surprised to
see that she is “almost good-looking”. She is not sure about
the image she wants to give. On the one hand, she would like
to be like her sister and Georgina, the type of women who are
confident about their physical appearance and who wear makeup. She would like to feel confident about walking in streets
filled with strangers. On the other hand, she is worried about
appearing different from the way she actually feels inside.
teamfile-p53-2
Georgina knows what happens on Ellis Island and knows that
it is not easy to enter the USA. She has obviously been through
the procedure several times and can therefore give Eilis very
precise information about what to expect, and what she should
and shouldn’t do if she wants to get through.
knowledgeable, frank, well-intentioned, sophisticated,
effective, straightforward. The adjectives show the contrast
between Eilis – who is naive and knows nothing about what
is going to happen on arrival – and Georgina, who is more
experienced and practical.
She “made Eilis open her suitcase”. She “chose”/“selected”
clothes. She got Eilis to “comb her hair”. The grammatical form
used is the imperative (“wear your coat”, “look”, “don’t wash”,
“don’t look”). This reinforces the picture given of a character who
knows what has to be done in order to get what one wants and
who is so sure of herself that she does not hesitate to give Eilis
orders.
The two women seem to get along despite their differences.
Georgina helps Eilis choose her clothes (“She chose a white

livre du professeur

dress”), gives her advice on her hairstyle (“don’t wash your hair
again”), and puts on her make-up with care (“For twenty minutes
she worked slowly”). She calls her “darling” which suggests a
friendly relationship.
teamfile-p53-3
Eilis looks “wretched” and is not in good shape. Both Eilis
and Georgina are hungry (“We’re all hungry”). Eilis’s clothes are
not in good condition (“make sure that nothing she wore was too
wrinkled”, “the shoes would have to be polished”).
First of all, for Georgina, Ellis Island is the place where people
can be stopped, examined and put in quarantine (“If she did
not take care she would be stopped at Ellis Island and put in
quarantine, or at least given a thorough medical examination.”).
Eilis must be careful not to cough and to keep her eyes open as
they are afraid she might have TB or an eye disease.
Then, “they” have a tendency to stop the Irish (“they stop the
Irish”). They will not stop Eilis if she does not look innocent and
wears mascara and “rouge”.
Finally, it is the entrance to “the land of the free and the brave”.
She believes that she is going to be met by Father Flood and
is not going to have any problems entering the country because
she has a full work permit.
Georgina is worried because Eilis has no idea of what she
is supposed to do to get through Ellis Island without attracting
any attention. She is too innocent and does not realise that it
will do her no good if she looks like a hungry Irish girl in search
of a new life.
She is probably poor (“I’m hungry”) and in need of a job
(“work permit”).
teamfile-p53-4

It relied on the flow of newcomers from abroad to people its
lands. It lacked people to do the farming, lumbering, mining,
hunting, and the like.

The story takes place during the “legislating immigration”
period, a period during which immigration was limited. It was no
longer possible for just anyone to emigrate to the United States.
Even though Eilis came from western Europe, she could be sent
back home.
(students’ own answers)
TRANSLATOR’S WORKSHOP

(p. 53)
Corrigé
Le soir précédant le jour où elles devaient normalement accoster,
elle se rendit à la salle à manger en compagnie de Georgina qui
lui déclara qu’elle avait une salle tête et que si elle n’y prenait pas
garde, elle serait interceptée en arrivant à Ellis Island et placée
en quarantaine, ou du moins qu’elle subirait un examen médical
complet. De retour dans la cabine, Eilis montra son passeport
à Georgina ainsi que les papiers qu’elle avait pour lui prouver
qu’elle n’aurait aucune difficulté pour entrer aux Etats-Unis. Elle
lui dit que le Père Flood serait là pour l’accueillir. Georgina fut
surprise, lui dit-elle, de voir qu’Eilis avait un permis de travail
permanent et non un permis temporaire. Elle était persuadée
qu’il était devenu difficile d’obtenir un tel document même avec
l’aide d’un prêtre. Elle demanda à Eilis d’ouvrir sa valise et de
lui montrer quels vêtements elle avait apportés afin de pouvoir
lui choisir la tenue la plus adaptée le jour du débarquement, et
s’assurer qu’elle ne porterait rien qui ne fût trop froissé.

PROJECT

(p. 53)
Le Project proposé ici restitue la problématique de l’immigration
abordé dans le texte mais d’un point de vue contemporain (mise
en valeur des enjeux économiques et éducatifs). Le lexique et
les structures nécessaires au bon déroulement de l’activité
peuvent s’adapter aux élèves de tous les niveaux. Les plus
faibles peuvent proposer des questions élémentaires ou jouer
le rôle d’immigrants non-anglophones. Les meilleurs élèves
peuvent également mettre à contribution leurs compétences


Name of the
period
The settlers of the
new world
Mass migration

Number of
immigrants
17th to the early Small
19th century
15 million
between the
1820s and the
1880s

A wave becomes
a flood

1865 to the
early 20th
century

Legislating
immigration

Time period

Early 20th
century to the
1960’s
The Hart-Cellar act 1965 to the
present day

nearly 25 million

Nationality of immigrants

Reasons for immigrating to the US

German (or from German-speaking
areas), French, Dutch
Central European, Scandinavian,
Irish

The promise of cheap land.

Southern and eastern Europeans:
Italians, Greeks, Hungarians,
Poles, and others speaking Slavic
languages. 2.5 to 3 million Jews.
Northern and western Europeans

The number of
immigrants was
restricted
As many as in the Korean, Chinese, Indian, Filipino,
early 1900’s
Pakistani, African

The Irish were primarily Catholic whereas the original
European settlers had been Protestant and the governing
religious practice was Protestant. The Irish were therefore
regarded as outsiders.

There was no land for them in their own
countries; they were freed from military
service at the end of the Napoleonic
Wars in Europe.
Eastern Europe was undergoing
economic changes and the people were
looking for land.
They were political and religious
refugees.
To find jobs.

pour proposer des questions plus complexes ou des réponses
plus élaborées. Il est conseillé, lors de la préparation, de bien
séparer les immigration officers des immigrants afin que chaque
groupe n’entende pas les questions ou réponses préparées par
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012 31

3 The Grass is Greener...
l’autre groupe. Le jeu de rôle sera ainsi plus authentique et les
élèves seront obligés de bien s’écouter pour jouer le sketch face
à la classe.

A Question of Identity

(p. 54)
(p. 54)

Corrigé
The many passports connote different nationalities; this links to
the title’s reference to “identities”. Indeed, a large part of people’s
sense of identity is defined by their nationality and where they
come from. The headlines talk about immigration, both of poor
people to richer countries and of expats living in France. This
connects with the idea of identity being put into “question” because
people are moving to foreign countries. The passports also reflect
this as they are the means by which people travel. I think the word
“identity” has become frequently used in recent years because
there is much more movement of people around the world, both
for economic reasons and lifestyle choices. The headline “Number
of Immigrants in the UK on the Increase” supports this point. What
this means is that people’s identity is no longer simply defined by
their nationality or where they are born.
(p. 54)
Script
tapescript9-p34
BOB: Mm, that was delicious, Laura. Once again, thank you so
much for inviting us.
SIMON: Coffee, Steph?
STEPH: Thank you, Simon. You know, when we rented the villa, we
didn’t expect to have English neighbours.
LAURA: Oh there are a lot of expats down here you know.
BOB: But you haven’t told us why you two came and settled here.
How long did you say it’s been: 20 years?
SIMON: That’s right.
STEPH: But your kids are back in the UK.
SIMON: Yes, they both have jobs there.
STEPH: And they even went to college there, right?
LAURA: To university, yes, I suppose that might look a bit, well,
contradictory, since they grew up here.
BOB: No... but I’d like to know why.
LAURA: Well, I suppose, like most other British expats, we came
here partly because of the climate, the food, the wine – the
lifestyle in general – and, of course, because property was
much cheaper then, and still is to some degree.
SIMON: We were living in a tiny house in England and the mortgage
alone cost us about two-thirds of our combined salaries.
STEPH: But wasn’t it difficult to just uproot yourselves like that?
I mean, 20 years ago... you had two young children, didn’t
you? And I guess you had to find jobs, learn French... it must
have been a real hard decision to make. Leaving your own
home country like that.
LAURA: Not as much as you might think. You see, neither Simon
or myself had a totally English childhood although we both
feel a certain nostalgia for, well, I don’t know what you’d call
it really...
BOB: What do you mean by not having an English childhood?
32 Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

LAURA: Well, Simon was actually born in Paris.
SIMON: Yes, I spent my early childhood there, though I don’t
remember much about it. Then my father was posted to
Calcutta where we settled for a few years. After that, he
went to work in Cameroon in West Africa and I was sent to
boarding school in England. So I got used to forging a sort
of double identity: during the school holidays I went home
to Cameroon and was an English boy in a foreign country,
and in term time I was in my... home country if you like, but I
didn’t feel as if I had any real roots there.
STEPH: What about you, Laura?
LAURA: Well, it was quite different for me. I grew up in London and
had a very settled, stable sort of existence. I went to the same
school from the age of 6 to when I left to go to university.
STEPH: But you said you didn’t have an English childhood...
LAURA: Well, I never felt properly English because my father
wasn’t English, you see. He was a Polish Jew, and he never
completely lost his foreign accent. He came to England in
1937 because of the anti-Semitism in Poland. Doors were
shutting for him everywhere. He was always top of the class
at his school but there was very little chance of him going on
to university because of the quotas.
STEPH: Quotas?
LAURA: Yes, there was a limit on the number of Jews who got
university places.
STEPH: Really? I didn’t know that.
LAURA: Mm.
BOB: Looking back, I suppose you’re glad he left...
LAURA: Well, if he’d stayed, I probably wouldn’t be here today. The
rest of the family didn’t make it.
BOB: Oh, I see. They all stayed in Poland.
LAURA: Yes.
SIMON: So you see why it wasn’t as difficult for us as it might be
for others to leave our home country because neither of us
felt 100% English.
STEPH: But what about having your kids grow up in a foreign
country?
SIMON: Oh, we were quite happy with that, to begin with. First of
all, they would be getting a solid, reliable education without
us having to pay through the nose for it.
BOB: But there’s state education in England too, isn’t there? You
don’t have to pay.
SIMON: Of course, and ideally that’s where we would have wanted
to send our kids if the schools had been good enough. Which
unfortunately they’re not. Or at least we didn’t think so. It’s a
real dilemma: you either support the state system and risk
your kids not learning anything, or else you embrace the
private system and go against what you believe in. We felt
that here in France we could rely on them learning the basics
thoroughly and it was just up to us then to make sure they
got enough chances to be creative outside school.
LAURA: Creativity is something that tends to be more encouraged
in the English system.
STEPH: So they went through the French state system but went
back to England to go to college. Is that something they
wanted to do, or did you sort of pressure them into it?

livre du professeur

SIMON: Well, we did rather encourage them. I think from our point
of view it was a mixture of, well, on the one hand, wanting the
best for them – and we still believe that British universities
have more to offer than French ones – but also a way of not
totally renouncing our British origins – our roots.
LAURA: I think it was also because we wanted our children to have
similar experiences to our own, as students I mean. That sort
of thing brings you closer.
STEPH: And how did they feel about that? I mean, going from one
country to another to live and to study?
LAURA: Oh you know, for the young, it’s all quite exotic and exciting
changing country. I think it was for my dad and it certainly
was for us, and after all our kids are...
SIMON: Children of immigrants?
LAURA: ...well, I mean, they don’t feel as if they belong to just one
country. Going back to England to study and get a job wasn’t
just a matter of looking for greener grass – it was all about
finding their own identity, I suppose – as true Europeans.
Corrigé
The two couples are Simon and Laura (English) and Bob and
Steph (American).
The conversation takes place in Laura and Simon’s house in
France.
The decision was taken 20 years ago and it was to leave
England and go to live in France.
Their reasons were: the lifestyle, the food, the wine, the
climate, and also the cheaper house prices. Later on they also
talk about the benefits of having a good state education for their
children.
Simon was born in Paris and then lived in Calcutta and
Cameroon where his father was posted. When his parents lived
in Cameroon he spent term time at boarding school in England.
This meant that when in Cameroon he felt foreign, but when
he was at boarding school he didn’t quite feel like other British
people. In some ways he felt he was between two stools.
Laura’s father was a Polish Jew and always had an accent, so
she didn’t feel 100% English.
He was a Polish Jew who left Poland in 1937 because of the
restrictions on university places for Jewish people. He left for
England whilst the rest of his family stayed in Poland.
They went to school in France but then moved to England to
go to university. They have both stayed on and found jobs.

Laura’s children are one quarter Polish, three-quarters
British and have grown up in France.
(p. 54)

L’élève doit utiliser l’information donnée dans le texte pour
appuyer son argumentation mais est fortement encouragé à
puiser également dans ses expériences personnelles.
L’élève doit comparer son opinion à celle donnée par
Laura en faisant référence aux exemples qu’elle donne dans
l’enregistrement.
Ici il n’est pas nécessaire de faire référence au texte, l’opinion
personnelle de l’élève suffit et est préférable.

WORDWORK

(p. 54)

Corrigé
wordfile-p54-1a
1. Bob & Stephanie : US. Simon & Laura : UK.
2. Laura et Simon ont invité Bob et Stephanie.
3. Le couple britannique.
4. 1/g, 2/e, 3/c, 4/f, 5/j, 6/d, 7/a, 8/i, 9/h, 10/b.
5. climat, nourriture, art de vivre, prix du logement, qualité de
l’éducation publique d’état.
wordfile-p54-1b
1. Bob & Stephanie : US. Simon & Laura : UK.
2. Laura et Simon invited Bob and Stephanie.
3. The British couple.
4. 1/g, 2/e, 3/c, 4/f, 5/j, 6/d, 7/a, 8/i, 9/h, 10/b.
5. climate, food, lifestyle, housing cost, quality of public
education.
wordfile-p54-2
A. 1/c, 2/a/b, 3/b, 4/a/b.
B. apprentice/trainee, CV/résumé, gap year/sabbatical,
profession/trade, redundant/unemployed, retire/step down,
salary/wages.
C. 1. gap year, 2. apprentice, 3. résumé, 4. redundant, 5. retire, 6.
profession, 7. wages.
(p. 54)
Corrigé
teamfile-p54-1

4 different voices: Laura, Simon, Bob and Steph.
Laura says she grew up in London.
Laura is Simon’s partner, and Steph is Bob’s partner.
The conversation takes place in Laura and Simon’s house.
Bob says “thanks so much for inviting us” to Laura.
It takes place in France. Steph notes that Simon and Laura
had to learn French. Laura says: “there are a lot of expats down
here”, which would indicate France – possibly the south of
France.
Laura and Simon left England and moved to France, where
they now live.
They both returned to England, initially to study at university
but they now live and work there.
teamfile-p54-2
Better lifestyle: food, wine, climate. Cheaper housing prices.
Better quality state education.
a. False. Laura: “Not as much as you think”.
b. False. Simon: “I spent my early childhood there (Paris)”.
c. False. Simon: “During the school holidays I went home to
Cameroon”.
d. False. Laura: “I went to the same school from the age of 6 to
when I left to go to university.”
e. Her father was a Polish Jew/a Jewish immigrant from Poland.
f. They encouraged them to go back to the UK to study at
university.
teamfile-p54-3
Laura’s father was a Polish Jew who arrived in the UK in 1937.
He always had a Polish accent.
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012 33

3 The Grass is Greener...
He was Jewish at a time when restrictions where being put
in place for them, such as quotas for university places. There
was a lack of opportunity for him despite the fact that he always
did very well at school.
He was a victim of the rising anti-Semitism of the time.
He might have been deported by the Nazis and maybe killed.
teamfile-p54-4
Their two children are in the UK. They initially went there to
study at university and then stayed on because they both have
jobs.
a. False. Laura says she was very happy for her children to
grow up in France. One of the reasons was because they would
get a solid state education.
b. False. They felt that in France they could rely on them learning
the basics thoroughly.
c. False. They wanted to send their children to state schools for
ideological reasons.
d. True. Simon says it was up to them to ensure their children got
enough chances to be creative outside school.
e. False. They tried to encourage them to do it in the UK.
f. Laura thinks that, for young people, changing country is exotic
and exciting. (Example: I would feel the same but I would also
find it quite hard to adapt to a new culture.)
g. None. She thinks they feel European rather than any particular
nationality.

PRONUNCIATION

(p. 54)

Corrigé
A. First syllable: everywhere (see tapescript below).
B. (see tapescript below)
Script
tapescript10-p54
1. degree; stress on the second syllable: degree.
2. delicious; stress on the second syllable: delicious.
3. encourage; stress on the second syllable: encourage.
4. everywhere; stress on the first syllable: everywhere.
5. existence; stress on the second syllable: existence.
6. per cent; stress on the second syllable: per cent.
Script
tapescript11-p54
1. neighbour, pressure. True. They rhyme. Neighbour has the
same final vowel sound as pressure: [e].
2. pressure, dilemma. True. They rhyme. Pressure has the same
final vowel sound as dilemma: [e].
3. climate, private. True. They rhyme. They have the same two
vowel sounds: [ai] and [I].
4. mortgage, engage. False. They don’t rhyme. One reason is
because mortgage is stressed on the first syllable.
5. foreign, London. True. They rhyme. Their last syllables are
identical: [en].
6. Polish, polish. False. They are pronounced differently. In the
adjective of nationality, the letter “o” is pronounced [eu]. In the
verb and noun, it’s pronounced [A].

On the Move

(p. 55)
Script
tapescript12-p55
PAUL: Ji, you were born in North Korea but your family left when
you were 10, is that right? Why did they leave?
34 Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

JI: Yes, well my father was a diplomat and got posted to our
embassy in Cambodia. He was cultural attaché at the time.
At least that was his official title, but I’ve always wondered
what his job really was...
PAUL: I see. Do you remember the day you left? How did you feel?
Did you have any idea that you’d never be going back to live
there?
JI: I remember it very clearly indeed. I was really nervous and
excited. Very few people were allowed to travel outside the
country then and it’s still true today I’m afraid. I was only
young but even then I realised we were living behind a...
What was it Winston Churchill called it?
PAUL: An iron curtain?
JI: Yes, that’s it. And somehow I knew that we were going away
for good: there was something in my dad’s attitude. I can’t
explain it really.
PAUL: Premonition maybe?
Ji: Maybe.
PAUL: But how did you end up in England?
JI: Well, when he was in Cambodia, I think my father was
“infected” – as they say in North Korea – by Western ways
of thinking that were gaining popularity in Cambodia in the
1990s.
PAUL: And you noticed this?
JI: Oh yes. He was getting more and more fed up with having to
do exactly as he was told, say things he didn’t really believe
in... And then it all happened very quickly. He got his French
counterpart – who he knew quite well, I think – to act as a
go-between with the British and arrange for my mother and
us two kids to spend a summer in Britain.
PAUL: And the British fixed it up?
JI: Yes. The plan was for us to apply for political asylum as soon
as we got there. It worked out fine, but it took another year
before my father joined us.
PAUL: What about school in England? How did you learn to speak
English?
JI: For the first few months I understood nothing at all. And there
were no EFL classes. I communicated by sign language
mostly! However, all the students in my class were very
friendly and the fact that I had to speak only English at
school helped me learn the language quickly.
PAUL: Do you remember what you felt about your new home? Did
you feel very foreign?
JI: Foreign at the beginning, yes of course, but perhaps more
“different” than foreign – I mean I was speaking Korean at
home with my family, and English at school – I was living
in two different worlds at the same time. But I soon came
to think of England as “home” – much more so than North
Korea anyway.
PAUL: So now you have finished your studies, where are you
going to live?
JI: Well, after “defecting” to the west, I guess going back to North
Korea is ruled out, unless I want to spend the rest of my life
in jail... It doesn’t matter which country I live in as long as
there is a large international community. That’s what I really
enjoy: being with people from diverse cultural backgrounds.

livre du professeur

My origins are important, yes, but I think we learn to acquire
cultural identities and are not just born with them, so I
don’t feel so strongly Korean any more. For the moment
I am just happy to be “on the move”. There are all sorts of
opportunities and experiences out there, and I don’t want to
miss out on any of them.

Help on interviews
(P. 55)
Corrigé
The other main questions are:
– Do you remember what you felt about your new home? Did you
feel very foreign?
– So now you have finished your studies, where are you going
to live?
Listen and write a summary

(P. 55)
Corrigé
Notes prises par l’élève qu’il transformera en résumé en français
– Ji was born in North Korea
– Father was a diplomat stationed in Cambodia
– He sent his family to England and they applied for political
asylum
– Then the father himself “defected” and joined his family
– Ji felt very foreign at first and had to learn English from scratch
at the age of 8
– She soon adapted and felt more English than Korean but is
still proud of her origins.
– Ji feels happy in a cosmopolitan environment and intends to
make the most of what an open world has to offer.
Ji a quitté sa Corée du Nord natale quand son père, diplomate
(ou espion ?) de profession fut envoyé au Cambodge dans
les années 90. Elle eut le pressentiment que ce départ était
définitif et la suite des événements lui donna raison. Elle
détecta chez son père des signes « d’occidentalisation » et
son départ pour l’Angleterre avec sa famille, arrangé avec
l’aide de collègues diplomates français et anglais, confirma
ce sentiment. Une fois arrivé en Angleterre la famille demanda
l’asile politique et fut réunie un an plus tard avec l’arrivée du
père. Les débuts furent difficiles pour des raisons culturelles
et linguistiques mais Ji apprit rapidement l’anglais et son
assimilation fut rapide sans qu’elle ne renie sa culture
d’origine. Elle termina ses études en Grande-Bretagne et se
sent tout à fait assimilée mais également très confortable
dans les environnements cosmopolites. Elle sait qu’un retour
au pays natal est impossible mais n’exclut pas de vivre dans
d’autres pays que le Royaume-Uni, consciente qu’elle est des
possibilités qu’offre une économie globalisée.

Talk about the theme
(P. 55)
Comme le préconisent les textes officiels, on a ici une bonne
occasion de demander aux élèves ce qu’ils entendent par la
notion d’échanges et de contact des cultures.
On pourra encourager les élèves à s’appuyer sur leur vécu
éventuel dans ce domaine ou, faute de mieux, sur des lectures
qu’ils auraient faites ou des films qu’ils auraient vus. Les divers
supports proposés dans le chapitre pourront aider ceux dont
l’inspiration est la plus fragile.

Language Corner

(p. 56-57)

Talking about who’s in control
Corrigé
Observation/réflexion
a. she made Eilis open.../(she made Eilis) show her... ;
b. arranging to have her trunk carried on deck ; c. getting Eilis
to comb...
a. Georgina fait ouvrir sa valise à Eilis ; b. Georgina fait
descendre sa malle (par quelqu’un) ; c. Georgina s’efforce de
convaincre Eilis de se brosser les cheveux d’une certaine façon.
coercition = a, persuasion = c, utilisation des services
fournis = b.
Georgina made Eilis sit on the bottom of the bunk and turn
her face towards the light and close her eyes/the water on this
boat has made it stand out like a ball of steel wool.
Non. Dans le premier énoncé l’idée de coercition est présente.
Dans le second, la structure indique une idée de cause.
Application/expression (exemples)
a. Georgina had Eilis wear make-up.
b. Georgina made Eilis polish her shoes.
c. She got Eilis to look full, happy and healthy.
d. She made her look as if she was well-fed.
e. She had her brush her hair so that it could be tied back into a
bun. She had her apply some lipstick carefully.
f. She made Eilis look like a different person. Etc.

Talking about what will happen
Corrigé
PRL sur la valeur épistémique/assertive de will/would sans
employer de mots barbares pour nos élèves ! Nous préférons
associer simplement les formes du modal à l’idée de certitude
dans ce contexte précis.
Observation/réflexion
she would be stopped at Ellis island and put in quarantine/
they’ll be afraid to stop you
will, would.
Application/expression
a/b. She told her that she would be met by Father Flood.
insisting that the shoes would have to be polished.
You’ll need to spend a few hours brushing it to get it into any
shape at all.
She thought that she would love to know how to put make-up on
properly herself
It would be much easier, she imagined, to go out among people
she did not know, maybe people she would never see again.
she knew that people would look at her [...] if she were dressed
up like this every day in Brooklyn.
(Exemples d’énoncés possibles)
a. If they see your suitcase, they will know immediately that
you’re Irish.
b. If they saw your suitcase, they would know immediately that
you were Irish.
c. If your clothes were too wrinkled, they would stop you and ask
questions.
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012 35

3 The Grass is Greener...
d. If you looked famished they would suspect some disease and
send you back home.
a. If I put too much make-up on, I’ll/I’d look like a tart.
b. If I wore too gaudy a dress, I’d attract too much attention.
c. If people in Brooklyn saw me like this, they’d take me for what
I’m not.

Talking about aims and intentions
Corrigé
Observation/réflexion
so that she could select suitable attire for her.
so that : locution conjonctive (conjonction)
La conjonction that seule suffit souvent à introduire la même
idée. D’autres possibilités : in order to, so as to, to. Le choix est
souvent une question de style. Ces mots de liaisons ne sont pas
forcément interchangeables dans tous les contextes.
Application/expression
(Quelques réponses possibles)
a. She warned her so that she wouldn’t attract the attention of the
Immigration Officers/so as to avoid attracting the attention.../to
avoid attracting...
b. She showed Georgina her passport and papers to convince
her that she had reasons to be confident about getting through
Immigration.
c. She made her open her suitcase (so as) to see what would be
best for her to wear on arrival.
d. They had to be polished so that she would not look like a poor
Irish girl.
e. She advised her to look confident so as not to make the
immigration officers suspicious.
f. She told her not to cough to avoid being put in quarantine.
g. She decided to make her up so as to make her look healthy,
attractive, prosperous and confident.

Reporting what people say
Corrigé
Nous renvoyons au paragraphe concernant l’expression de la
certitude.
Observation/réflexion
Georgina [...] told her that [...] if she did not take care she
would be stopped at Ellis island and put in quarantine
Ici, un seul : told.
say, ask, answer, etc. Les élèves futés verront vite la
réponse dans la partie « application ».
Les transformations imposées par le passage du
discours direct au discours indirect concernent les temps et
leur concordance, le passage des premières et deuxièmes
personnes (singulier ou pluriel) aux troisièmes (pour les
pronoms personnels et les pronoms et adjectifs possessifs), et
les accords correspondants (au présent).
Faire parler Georgina ici : If you do not take care, you will be
stopped and put in quarantine.
L’exercice qui suit montrera aussi qu’il est souvent nécessaire
de « jouer » avec les démonstratifs et certains mots de
liaison, et aussi que certains verbes entraînent l’emploi des
36 Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

équivalents du subjonctif français (c). On a aussi dans cet
exercice deux occasions de faire remarquer l’emploi tout à
fait acceptable de must dans un contexte passé (troisième
intervention de Georgina, exemple c), et des passages où le
discours indirect devient presque « libre » pour des raisons de
style.
Application/expression
(examples)
a. Georgina told/advised/Eilis to wear her coat over her arm and
(to) look as though she knew where she was going. She told/
reminded her not to wash her hair again because the water on
the boat made it stand out like a ball of steel wool. She added
that Eilis would need to spend a few hours brushing it to get it
into any shape at all.
b. Georgina told/advised Eilis not to look too innocent. She said
they would be afraid to stop her once she had put some eye-liner
on her and some rouge and mascara. She also told her that her
suitcase was all wrong but that there was nothing they could do
about that.
Eilis asked/wanted to know what was wrong with it/her suitcase.
c. Georgina insisted she (should) try not to look so frightened.
Eilis complained that she was hungry but Georgina reminded
her they were all hungry; then she said there was no need for
her to look hungry, and told her to pretend she was full.
Eilis objected that she almost never wore make-up at home.
Georgina reminded her that she was about to enter the land
of the free and the brave. She added that she didn’t know/she
wondered how Eilis got the stamp on her passport. She said
she was sure the priest knew/must know someone. She finally
told her that the only thing they could stop her for was if they
thought she had TB, and consequently advised her not to cough
whatever she did. Another thing they could stop her for was
if they thought she had some eye disease whose name she
couldn’t remember. Therefore, she must keep her eyes open. She
said/admitted that sometimes they didn’t stop you* at all except
to look at your* papers.
* rappel qu’il s’agit d’un you générique

Writing a dialogue
Corrigé
Observation/réflexion
Dans la première phrase, l’auteur utilise le discours
dit indirect ou rapporté et fait référence aux deux personnages à
la troisième personne. Dans le second passage, l’utilisation des
guillemets montre qu’il a recours au discours direct.
Les propos tenus au présent au discours direct sont
rapportés au passé au discours indirect.
Les première et deuxième personnes deviennent des troisièmes
personnes au discours indirect.
Voir ce qui est dit pour le point précédent.
Application/expression
a. Georgina said, “You look wretched Eilis and if you don’t take
care you will be stopped at Ellis Island and put in quarantine.”
b. Eilis said, “Look, Georgina. My passport and papers show that I
won’t have any problem entering the United States.”
c. Eilis said, “I will/shall be met by Father Flood.”

livre du professeur

d. Georgina said, “I must say I am surprised you’ve got a full work
permit rather than a temporary one.”
e. Georgina said, “I don’t think it’s easy nowadays to get such a
document, even with the help of a priest.”
f. Georgina said, “Now, open your suitcase and show me what
clothes you have brought (with you) so that I can choose a
suitable attire for you when you are disembarking. I want to
make sure that nothing you wear is too wrinkled.”
g. Georgina said, “Now while I’m putting some make-up on, comb
your hair out even straighter so that we can tie it back into a
bun.”

Dividing Lines

(p. 58)
Il y a deux parties dans cette double page culturelle : la première
traite des « lignes » qui empêchent les échanges et la seconde
traite des gens qui les franchissent, pour quelles raisons et avec
quels résultats.

(p. 58)
Corrigé
Envoyer les élèves sur les sites suivants dont la liste n’est
bien sûr pas exhaustive. Confier un site à un groupe d’élèves
et les faire comparer les informations recueillies par les divers
groupes. En fin d’activité, mettre en place une synthèse débat
permettant de comparer les points communs et les différences
entre les dividing lines retenues.
Hadrian’s Wall
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadrian’s_Wall
http://www.aboutscotland.com/hadrian/
http://www.google.fr/search?q=hadrian’s+wall&hl=fr&prmd=i
mvns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=3hB7T_vrBY
6q8AOO5bHQCA&sqi=2&ved=0CD4QsAQ&biw=1665&bih=816
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/hadrian_gallery.
shtml
Ces deux derniers sites offrent une grande collection d’images
permettant de monter un diaporama commenté à l’aide des
informations recueillies sur les autres sites (tâche actionnelle).
The Berlin Wall
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin_Wall
http://history1900s.about.com/od/coldwa1/a/berlinwall.htm
http://www.berlin-life.com/berlin/wall
http://www.google.fr/search?q=the+berlin+wall&hl=fr&prmd
=imvnsab&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=qhN7T
9G_JMLP0QXXkanICQ&sqi=2&ved=0CFMQsAQ&biw=1665&b
ih=816
Cette dernière adresse offre une collection d’images permettant
d’organiser le même exercice que celui suggéré ci-dessus.
A Peace Wall, Belfast
Une recherche sur les « troubles » en Irlande du Nord (Ulster)
nous paraît utile.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Troubles
http://www.historyonthenet.com/Chronology/timelinenorthern
ireland.htm (timeline)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/recent/troubles/the_troubles_
article_01.shtml

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peace_lines
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/8121362.
stm
images :
http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/gallery/2009/jul/29/peace-wallbelfast-northernireland-pictures
http://www.google.fr/search?q=peace+walls+in+belfast&hl=
fr&prmd=imvns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=
KRZ7T5SeJYWQ8QOeitWvCA&ved=0CFMQsAQ&biw=1665&b
ih=816
The Mexico–USA border fence
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexico_–_United_States_barrier
http://immigration.about.com/od/bordersportsandcustoms/i/
Fence_Issue.htm
http://www.commondreams.org/headline/2009/10/02-5
http://immigration.procon.org/view.answers.php?questionID=
000778 (pros & cons)
images :
http://www.google.fr/search?hl=fr&q=the+mexicous+border+fence&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.,cf.osb&biw=
1665&bih=816&um=1&ie=UTF-8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=
N&tab=wi&ei=CyJ7T67KL6jX0QXepLm7CQ
(p. 58)
Script
tapescript13-p58
WOMAN 1: If you get caught, it’s harder to get back in now than
it used to be. When I started talking to immigrants back
in 1987 they could usually get through on the fourth try.
Now it’s taking them from eleven to fourteen tries. In some
areas if they catch you more than once they prosecute. The
Department of Justice has created special prosecutors in
the US Attorney’s office to deal with repeat-crossers, and
some of them end up serving time in federal prisons.
MAN 1: I spent ten years on duty there. I guess it must have been
one of the most famous border crossings in history. Its name
even got into movies and books – everyone knew about
Checkpoint Charlie. Looking back on it now, it seems almost
surreal – a wall going across the middle of a city, separating
families, cutting streets in two, even going through buildings
sometimes. All that because of the iron curtain; because the
commies didn’t want their people to see what life was like on
the other side.
WOMAN 2: Well, I think the basic idea was to keep the two
communities apart, for their own good, you know. And
because the city had definite areas where each community
lived – almost like ghettoes really – it was relatively easy to
decide where walls could be put up to make barriers. Myself,
I think things have come to a pretty state of affairs when a
wall is put up in the interests of peace. Yes, all right, things
have improved a lot since the first walls went up, and a lot of
people want to keep them. If nothing else, they’ve become
tourist attractions. But I think if you want to stop people
hating each other, building walls is not the right way to go
about it.
MAN 2: So here we are about halfway along the wall, 60 kilometres
or so from each coast. Although there is no clear evidence
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012 37

3 The Grass is Greener...
to show whether it was intended as a deterrent against
invasion or as a sort of customs barrier, most historians
now agree that it was more of a symbolic frontier than a real
one, designed to show off the power of the nation that had
conquered Britain little more than half a century before.
Corrigé
The first is the Mexico-USA border fence. What the woman says
places it in the USA (Department of Justice, US Attorney’s office,
federal).
The second is the Berlin Wall. The man mentions Checkpoint
Charlie, a wall in the middle of a city, the iron curtain, and
“commies” (i.e. communists).
The third is a Belfast Peace Wall. The two communities mentioned
are obviously the Protestants and the Catholics. The name of the
wall is referred to as well: “a wall is put up in the interests of peace”.
The fourth is Hadrian’s Wall. It is located on a fairly narrow stretch
of land (60 kms from each coast) which corresponds to northern
England/southern Scotland. The “nation that had conquered
Britain” is a reference to Rome. The date “half a century before”
refers to the Roman conquest of England which took effect in
the years following the victory over Boudicaa/Boadicea in 60 AD.

Crossing the Lines

(p. 59)
(p. 59)

Corrigé
Both men were foreign-born. They both came from well-todo families and were well-educated. Both men left their native
countries never to return although for different reasons. Both
became citizens of their adoptive countries. Both men became
famous English-speaking writers in their new countries.
Both biographies tend to prove that one of the main reasons
for people to leave, or flee from their native lands, is the search
for freedom or an attempt to escape oppression. (cf. http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Conrad & http://en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Khaled_Hosseini)
WORDWORK

(p. 59)

Corrigé
wordfile-p59
A. The Schengen agreement allows passport-free travel
throughout 22 of the EU’s 27 member states, plus four others.
Although Denmark is a signatory of the agreement, it now wants
to reintroduce border controls. The Danes plan to rebuild manned
border stations, to implement video surveillance of cars crossing
Danish borders and to use sniffer dogs for drug searches.
The Danish government says the resumption of border checks is
needed to help prevent cross-border crime, illegal immigration,
drug trafficking and arms smuggling.
Of these, problems associated with illegal immigration are
placed at the forefront by certain right-wing politicians and
lobby groups. They say that the recent rise in break-ins is due
to the influx of Eastern European gangs. Police authorities agree
with this analysis, but the irony is that, by concentrating on
the break-ins, police have been spending less time policing the
borders and have been catching fewer human smugglers and
38 Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

illegal immigrants than before. So, as more criminal elements
get into the country, the crime rate goes up even higher...
B. 1/j, 2/f, 3/g, 4/i, 5/h, 6/b, 7/c, 8/a, 9/d, 10./e.

PROJECT

(p. 59)
Cette mission vient compléter les activités actionnelles suggérées ci-dessus. Afin d’étoffer le contenu des propos échangés,
donner le temps aux élèves d’effectuer les recherches nécessaires sur les personnes ou personnages qu’ils auront choisis.

Landscape painting

(p. 60-61)
(p. 60)

Corrigé
• Both Gainsborough and Stubbs were concerned with realism:
Gainsborough’s portraits and Stubbs’s animals bear witness to
this. However, when it came to portraying the countryside and
country life as it really was, they were both affected by the fashion
of the day – the idealisation of rural life. In Gainsborough’s case,
it is obvious from the title of The Watering Place that this was an
imaginary location (otherwise he would have called it by its real
name). Artistic composition and lighting effects were what was
important. The case of Stubbs is quite different: everything nonhuman in Haymakers seems perfectly realistic and probably
painted from life, but the clean, well-dressed agricultural workers
are too good to believe. At that time, agricultural labourers were
very poor and life in the country was extremely hard. One might
compare Stubbs’s version of country life with Marie-Antoinette’s
bucolic pleasures at Trianon.
• Many 18th century English landowners went on the “Grand
Tour” which took them, among other places, to Rome. They (and
the artists of the day) were much influenced by the picturesque
nature of Classical ruins and the result was that many English
estates were endowed with topographical and architectural
features that were intended to reproduce the picturesque
“Romantic” nature of such ruins. Unlike France, where wealthy
landowners spent most of their time at court and therefore had
little interest in their country estates, English landowners lived
much of the year on their estates, entertained lavishly, and
brought about the flowering of English domestic architecture
during the Georgian era. “Improvements” that were made were
the addition of lakes, small hills, temples, trees planted at
strategic points... in order to make natural features even more
agreeable to the eye. This was by no means the same as the
Renaissance desire to control and formalise nature (as seen in
French and Italian gardens).
• Impressionism is all about painting what you see and not what
you think you ought to see: painting real light in fact. Since Turner’s
main interest was in light, it is not surprising that Impressionist
painters found inspiration in his works. Also, Turner’s brushwork
was daring, impetuous... it was the brushwork of someone who
was in a hurry to capture the moment.
• (students’ own answers)
L’activité supplémentaire
Une fiche de travail est téléchargeable : artfile-p.40. Il s’agit d’un
texte sur le Romantisme.

livre du professeur

Corrigé
artfile-p.00
This movement had its roots in the 18th century and was
essentially a reaction to many of the tenets of that century (also
called the Age of Reason or the Age of Enlightenment), notably
that disciplines created by Man – such as science, mathematics
and philosophy – reigned supreme, whereas Nature was
regarded as something to be tamed and put into order. The
Romantic, on the other hand, was in awe of Nature, marvelled at
its forces and saw it as pure, regenerative and near-divine.
Nature was at the forefront of the Romantic movement. Just
as, nearly two centuries later, young people were dropping
out of society, rejecting convention and trying to “get back to
nature”, so the Romantics looked at the results of the Industrial
Revolution and saw only overcrowded cities, poverty and
degradation. In believing himself capable of all things, Man was
removing himself from his natural state and becoming alienated
from Nature. In the eyes of the Romantics, what had started off
in the Renaissance as an escape from religious oppression
and a celebration of humankind, had gone much too far. The
Romantics wanted to return to a more “natural” state, to exist
in surroundings that had not been corrupted by human hands.
This was fine in theory, but it was very tempting to help Nature
along a little bit. A landowner whose family had been used to
formal Italian gardens for three generations was not suddenly
going to let his estate become a complete wilderness. To be
fashionable, he would make it look a little wild and mysterious in
places, but he would not lose control of it.
The same was true of landscape painting in the early days of
the Romantic movement. Although some painters went out and
painted Nature without doctoring the view, others thought it
was a better idea to “improve” on Nature. An idealised vision of
Nature was often easier to sell than a completely true one.

Ateliers
Atelier 1

(p. 62-63)

(p. 62)
Script
dvdscript-p42
REBECCA: There are millions of people throughout the world in need
of protection and aid. Hi, I’m Rebecca Brayton and welcome
to watchmojo.com and today we’ll be learning more about
the world’s refugee situation and what we can do to help. So
can you explain to us: what exactly is a refugee?
RIVKA: A refugee is a person who has been forced to flee their
country, to cross a border because they are in fear of
persecution, for reasons of political opinion, religion, race,
nationality or social group.
[refugee interview]
The international community has agreed that people do have
to have this right to seek protection but, in order for it to be
real, individual countries have to allow people to come in.
People who are the victims of persecution are actually the
victims of a violation of human rights, so I think if we think
about it like that, and if we try to imagine what we would do
in a similar situation... What would you do if somebody came
knocking at your door and threatened you, what would... and
you knew that you couldn’t go to the police?

REBECCA: How does someone become a refugee?
RIVKA: For example, if you are a child in a country where children
are being forced into being child soldiers or who are open to
be kidnapped by paramilitaries to be taken off to be child
soldiers and if you try to decide or your family decides we
don’t want this to happen to our child, I think it’s impossible
for people here to imagine... How could somebody come off
and take a child of ten and take them off into the jungle and
make them into a soldier and feed them drugs so that they’ll
become compliant killers? If that family were to succeed in
fleeing, they would be refugees. Unfortunately, most people
who do need protection can’t get it, but the people who do
manage to escape, and the people who do manage to get to
another country need at least to be heard.
[refugee interview]
REBECCA: How many refugees are living in the world right now?
RIVKA: By some estimates, there are over ten million refugees
in the world. Some have been recent refugees, for example
refugees from Iraq, who in the last few years perhaps fled Iraq
to go to Syria and Jordan. Afghan refugees who have been in
Pakistan for many, many years and in Iran, another country
that we don’t think of as receiving refugees; they have close to
a million Afghan refugees that they are housing. In addition to
all these over ten million refugees, there are also many more
what we call internally displaced people: people who have not
crossed the border but who have moved to another region of
their country, have fled or have been pushed because of war
or because of persecution or because somebody wants their
land... It’s not easy these days to find a place of refuge. Often
it’s the very people that need protection that have difficulty
getting documents, that have difficulty crossing borders, that
have difficulty getting on airplanes, and what we’re saying to
people is: think about these things, think about the need for
protection and let’s be generous. Refugees are people and
people have human rights.
Corrigé (questions du manuel)
(photo 1) After the Second World War, the UN voted to
partition the territory known as Palestine into a Jewish part
and an Arab part. No Arab nation supported this partition but
pro-Jewish feeling was very strong after the Holocaust and the
state of Israel was created in 1948. Civil war had already begun
by then in Palestine and hundreds of thousands of Arabs had
already left. The war continued with the forced expulsion of
many Arabs and the killing of many others. Whether or not it
was official Israeli policy to proceed with this “ethnic cleansing”
is disputed, but the result was that about 700,000 Palestinian
Arabs either left or had to leave their homes.
(photo 2) Conflict between Muslims and Hindus in India dates
back to the 8th century. Muslim invaders took over most of
India and it was only centuries later, under British rule, that their
“occupation” was ended. When India was granted independence
in 1947, it was thought that Hindus and Moslems could not
govern together in peace (although some, like Gandhi, believed
they could). For this reason, the Moslem state of Pakistan was
created in the belief that two separate states – one Muslim
and one Hindu – was the only viable solution. Working out the
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012 39

3 The Grass is Greener...
partition, however, was not easy. There was a sizeable Hindu
minority in what was to become Pakistan and millions of
Moslems were living in Hindu-dominated India. Therefore, when
the two states were established, there was a mass exodus – of
Hindus from Pakistan to India, and of Moslems from India to
Pakistan. There were uprisings, riots, massacres... Miilions of
refugees flooded across borders in search of safety.
(photo 3) The rise of the Nazi party in Germany was largely
because of its economic policies: reducing unemployment
and poverty in a country crippled by the constraints put on it
after its defeat in 1918. But the Nazis also put emphasis on
regaining self-esteem: Germans should realise that theirs was
a superior race; they had no reason to feel shame or humiliation
for what had happened in the past... The superiority of one race
implies the inferiority of another and, for the Nazis, this was
above all the Jewish race which, among other things, was
blamed for Germany’s defeat in 1918. Persecution began with
taunting in the street, slogans painted on shop windows... and
continued with laws (1933) preventing Jews from occupying
certain posts or having full citizenship rights. By the time
Kristallnacht arrived in 1938 (a series of coordinated attacks
on Jews), many thousands had already emigrated. Because
of the new laws, they were not allowed to obtain cash in
exchange for their assets and so many left Germany with very
few possessions.
(students’ own answers)
a. Political opinion, religion, race, nationality or social group.
b. Human rights.
c. They may be kidnapped by paramilitaries and taken off to be
child soldiers.
d. Syria, Jordan, Pakistan, Iran.
e. “People who have not crossed the border but who have moved
to another region of their country, have fled or have been pushed
because of war or because of persecution or because somebody
wants their land.”
f. (example) She thinks countries should treat refugees with
generosity and respect because they have human rights just
like the countries’ own citizens.
(students’ own answers)
dvdfile-p62
A. The international community has agreed that people do have
to have this right to seek protection but, in order for it to be real,
individual countries have to allow people to come in. People
who are the victims of persecution are actually the victims of a
violation of human rights, so I think if we think about it like that,
and if we try to imagine what we would do in a similar situation...
What would you do if somebody came knocking at your door and
threatened you, what would... and you knew that you couldn’t go
to the police?
B. 1. False. “individual countries have to allow people to come in”
2. True. “it’s impossible for people here to imagine”
3. False. “people who do manage to get to another country need
at least to be heard”
4. True. “Often it’s the very people that need protection that
have difficulty getting documents, that have difficulty crossing
borders, that have difficulty getting on airplanes”
40 Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

5. True. “...let’s be generous. Refugees are people...”
C. (possible sentence)
Although almost all countries agree that it is a basic human right
to be safe in one’s own country, when this right is violated, a lot
of countries refuse to allow the victims to enter and thereby
escape persecution.

Atelier 2

(p. 63)
Corrigé
The language in the extract under study is definitely not
what could be called “standard English” in the sense that it
is sometimes faulty (= defective), sometimes colloquial (=
very informal). Sometimes the transcription indicates the
pronunciation “miles a big live oaks” instead of “miles of...” One
can pin down the accent socially, ethnically and geographically:
“them numbers” (uneducated and/or lower class), “she don’t
know it” (lower-class and/or Southern States and/or AfricanAmerican), “we one big anthill” (omission of verb: uneducated
African-American from the Southern States), “Jackson be filled
with” (use of the infinitive for present indicative: uneducated
African-American from the Southern States), “we all chatting”
(omission of the auxiliary: uneducated from the Southern States).
“This tells us that the narrator must be an uneducated AfricanAmerican from the southern states”.
Six days a week, I take the bus across the Woodrow Wilson
Bridge to (the place) where Miss Leefolt and all her white friends
live, in a neighborhood called Belhaven. Right next to Belhaven
is the city center and the state capital. The Capitol building is
really big, pretty on the outside but I have never been in it. I
wonder how much they pay to clean that place.
Down the road from Belhaven is white Woodland Hills, then
Sherwood Forest, which is an area with miles of big live oaks
with moss hanging down. Nobody lives in it yet, but it’s there
for the time in the future when white folks are ready to move
somewhere else new. Then there’s the country, out where Miss
Skeeter lives on the Longleaf cotton plantation. She doesn’t know
it, but I picked cotton out there in 1931, during the Depression,
when we didn’t have anything to eat but some cheese.
The city where the story is set is Jackson, Mississippi.
Belhaven is an apparently white and privileged, upper-class area
in Jackson, which is separated from “the colored part a town” (ll.
25-26) or “the colored neighborhood” (l. 45), an underprivileged,
working-class area inhabited by African-Americans.
The bus that is mentioned (“the number six bus”, line 29) is
filled with black maids (i.e. cleaners) who commute from their
area of residence to the wealthy area where they work every
day and return home in the evening: “maids heading home in
our white uniforms” (ll. 31-32) who “clean that place” (l. 14) and
“iron pleats” (l. 50).
The most obvious reference is to “Miss Parks” (l. 35),
namely Rosa Parks (1913-2005) who, on 1st December 1955
in Montgomery, Alabama, refused to give up her seat to make
room for a white passenger and thereby became a symbol of
resistance to racial segregation. This act of defiance made her
“the mother of the freedom movement” and sparked off the Civil
Rights movement led by Martin Luther King.

livre du professeur

The narrator is a female domestic servant. She uses the
phrase “old lady like me” to refer to herself, which would
tend to indicate that she is in her sixties. She mentions her
remembrances from 1931 and alludes to another cleaning lady
who is “seventeen years younger”. She used to be a cotton
picker (“I picked cotton out there in 1931”, ll. 21-22) and is now a
maid. She lives in the black neighborhood across the bridge and
works in the privileged, white area.
In connection with the reference to Rosa Parks (“we sit
anywhere we want to now thanks to Miss Parks”, ll. 34-35),
we can guess that the scene is set in the late fifties or early
sixties, between 1956 and 1963 anyway. The allusion to colored
hospitals is reminiscent of the segregation in public places
and the famous “Jim Crow” Laws, notably the 1942 Health Care
regulation about “segregated facilities at state charity hospital
and separate entrances at all state hospitals.” Most of these
segregation laws with a supposedly “separate but equal” status
for blacks and whites were enforced for decades and were
eventually overruled by the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
This text can be linked to the topic of this chapter insofar
as, especially in times of conflict, inequalities or recession,
some people turn to other categories or people for help, work
or freedom. Even though such relationships are sometimes
the expression of a certain kind of injustice or hypocrisy, it is
a typical way in which society works. However, what this text
also refers to is the solidarity, resilience, bravery and strongmindedness of these women.

Atelier 3
(p. 64)
Corrigé
a. On both sides of the fence, the landscape looks arid which
shows that the region is in fact a desert with very little rainfall.
There is no sign of green grass on either side.
b. The dotted line represents the Mexico-US border. What is
actually missing is the (in)famous fence that the US authorities
have been putting up for several years now to dissuade
immigrants from “crossing the line”.
c. The man on the left is Uncle Sam, in other words the US
government. The two men on the right are Mexicans who are/
were planning to enter the US in search of a job and a better life.
d. The billboards show graphs illustrating the dire state of the US
economy. They replace the fence and are intended to play the
same role: to deter would-be immigrants. And it seems to work
fine if we are to believe the Mexicans’ decision to turn back and
forget the “American dream”.
Uncle Sam explains why the charts have been put up. He
seems confident that they will play a more efficient role in
deterring the immigrants than a fence would.
The Mexicans have realised that the grass may not be that
greener on the other side, which both the landscape and the
billboards show.
The title invites those tempted by immigration to think twice
before making their move.
Atelier 4

(p. 64)
Corrigé
Quelques adresses pour aider les élèves à trouver des

informations et des arguments :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Running_Fence
http://www.christojeanneclaude.net/major_fence.shtml
http://www.google.fr/search?q=running+fence&hl=fr&prmd=i
mvns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=6R18T_fDCq
nT0QW20qynDQ&ved=0CEAQsAQ&biw=1665&bih=816
images :
http://sfpublicpress.org/news/2010-11/decades-years-aftersonoma-running-fence-christo-still-making-art-and-waves
Confier les sites aux deux groupes pour étude préalable de
leurs contenus.
Chacun des deux groupes peut illustrer ses arguments grâce
aux images récupérées sur internet, éventuellement sous forme
de diaporama.

Atelier 5

(p. 64)
Corrigé
On peut suggérer aux élèves de consulter http://en.wikipedia.
org/wiki/Robert_Fulghum pour en savoir plus sur l’auteur de la
citation.
Nous conseillons aussi à nos collègues All I Really Need to Know
I Learned in Kindergarten (1988), recueil d’écrits dans lequel on
peut trouver de nombreux supports pour des classes allant de la
troisième à la terminale.
Cinq points pour guider la construction de l’essai :
This phrase generally implies that things are better on the
other side of the place you live in, be it a country or simply a
neighbourhood. This also implies that very often “lines” –
whether material or immaterial – divide people.
Fences are supposed to keep out those on the wrong side
of the fence, so that those on the right side won’t have to share
what they can enjoy. But what those on the “wrong” side of the
fence must realise is that if the grass is greener on the other
side it may simply be because the people living there water it,
a metaphor meaning that material happiness comes with work
and effort, and that maybe making that effort on one’s own side
of the fence where the grass is not so green might be enough
to change life there without having to cross the line. Certainly a
lesson for those immigrants tempted by the lure of the welfare
system – some might think.
water = work, even hard work; effort.
(students’s own answers)
Not really, the lesson is: if you want happiness you have to
work for it. As they say in the US, “there is no such thing as a
free meal”.
(Encourager les élèves à conclure leurs essais par des proverbes
servant de conclusion/synthèse à la problématique discutée).

Class Project

(p. 65)

Ce projet propose une réflexion sur les relations et les sentiments
que l’on peut avoir au contact d’autres cultures lorsque l’on fait
partie d’une minorité. Ce type d’expérience est assez à la mode
dans le monde entier vu le nombre de programmes télévisés qui
mettent des célébrités dans des milieux inconnus, voire hostiles,
afin de provoquer des chocs culturels et faire découvrir aux
téléspectateurs des ethnies et des cultures différentes.
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012 41

3 The Grass is Greener...
Le projet consiste à préparer, jouer et filmer quatre épisodes
d’un programme télévisé montrant les difficultés de tous
ordres auxquelles on peut être confronté dans une culture
différente.
• Donner du temps aux élèves pour faire construire ce projet : ils
devront faire des recherches sur le peuple qu’ils visent, écrire le
scénario, l’apprendre par cœur pour ensuite le jouer et le filmer.
• Faire un planning de diffusion du programme pour que chaque
groupe s’organise et ait préparé son clip vidéo pour le jour prévu.
• Programmer la diffusion d’un épisode par semaine (le même
jour si possible, tel un programme télévisé), ce qui permettra
d’avoir un fil conducteur et surtout de maintenir la motivation
pendant un mois.
• Pour les confidences et réactions des participants au
programme, deux possibilités s’ouvrent à la classe : soit les
filmer avant de les projeter en classe (ce qui pourrait permettre
à des classes plus faibles d’écrire le texte et de le jouer), soit
les faire en direct (le présentateur invite sur le plateau les
participants et les interviewe en direct (ce qui permet de faire
un travail plus « authentique » avec une prise de parole sans
notes, conseillé pour des classes/élèves plus à l’aise). Cette
dernière solution permet de mettre un point final à ce travail,
le présentateur invitant tous les participants sur le plateau le
même jour donc les élèves devront ressortir leurs notes et se
remémorer les différents épisodes diffusés afin de poser des
questions et délibérer.

Mock exam

(p. 66-67)

Corrigé
Comprehension de l’écrit
a. The passage deals with the time just before the Berlin
Wall was built (August 1961) by the East German authorities
to prevent East Germans from fleeing to West Berlin in order
to escape communist rule in East Germany. (The conversation
itself must take place before 1989 since the Wall is obviously
still in place.)
b. It tells the story of an East German woman and her lover who
planned to leave East Germany just in time before the authorities
closed all borders. We gather that the woman did manage to
escape but the passage does not say whether her lover followed
her or stayed behind.
“Running Away From Home” seems to fit the passage best
because most of it tells of the story of how the woman managed
to escape. It was not just “leaving” home. “Leaving” does not
convey the idea of urgency that “running away” does.
a/b. The two characters are passengers on a plane about to
land in West Berlin. The woman escaped just before the wall went
up. She is German (note that she is smoking German cigarettes:
HB) and is almost certainly a West German citizen. The other
character is a man, the one telling the story. We don’t know much
about him from this passage. He could well be American.
c. They are going to West Berlin.
d/e. The people mentioned are the woman’s parents, East
Germans with responsible positions in the East German
Communist party. They lived in Leipzig. Stephan is the woman’s
husband, another East German working for the government.
42 Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

Florian is the woman’s (“occasional”) lover, an East Berliner and
a journalist for an East German newspaper.
Other people mentioned are Florian’s daughter, Jutta, and his
former wife, another high-ranking official in the Communist party.
Before 1989, since the Wall is still standing.
a. see the answers to 3. d/e.
b. It is important to understand that the people who decided
to escape (the woman and Florian) had also decided to leave
members of their families behind, whom they were not sure ever
to see again. Also, they knew that those left behind might suffer
from their escape because of their position in the party.
a. The narrator is the man travelling on the plane with the
woman. But the woman is the narrator of the story of her escape.
b. “Someone, I sensed immediately, who had seen a great many
things she would have preferred not to have seen.”
c. The woman and Florian had become/grown “more doubtful
about the regime and the future.” They knew they had very little
time to act if they ever wanted to leave the country.
d. The woman pretended she was meeting a friend at the local
swimming-pool, and she took very few things with her. Florian
left his appartment to talk with the woman just in case the
place might be bugged. He also avoided arousing his ex-wife’s
suspicion by leaving his daughter behind after trying to make
contact with her.
a. No, because she loved her parents and she knew her
decision might hurt her father’s career.
b. “For the enemy. Who is everyone outside the Warsaw Pact and
the ‘fraternal brotherhood’ of fellow Socialist prison camps, like
Cuba, Albania, North Korea...”
c. She calls them “prison camps”.
d. Apartments were often “bugged”, i.e. there were microphones
hidden here, and telephone lines were bugged too. Also, the fact
that some people knew of places where you could cross to the
West “undetected” shows that the East-German authorities kept
a close watch on people’s movements.
a. She’s very nervous. She is chain-smoking, hoping each
cigarette will help calm her.
b. Obviously because seeing the Wall reminds her of what she
has escaped from.
c. This place refers to East-Berlin and its Wall.
d. “I can never fly over this place and not light up. It’s almost
Pavlovian.”
e. “we had spent thirty minutes bouncing through turbulence
over German Democratic Republic airspace...”
f. “brought about (as the American pilot explained) by having to
fly at just ten thousand feet over this foreign country.”

a. Maria is Florian’s ex-wife. We know that because we are told
that Florian made a last attempt to get in touch with his daughter.
b. Because she fled a few hours before the borders were sealed
and the Wall began going up. “Time was running out.”
c. “He looked ashen”: Florian was very pale because he knew he
would have to go without his daughter or stay behind.
“They’ve gone out”: Florian knew he couldn’t even say goodbye
to his daughter.

livre du professeur

Expression écrite
LV1 / LV2 (B1)
Conformément aux instructions concernant le nouveau bac ces
deux sujets concernent la compétence de narration.

LV1 (B2)
Les candidats sont ici invites à exprimer des idées personnelles,
à les défendre, à argumenter. Voir les textes officiels décrivant
cette partie de l’épreuve.

4 Living Together
Après les rêves de paysages « plus verts », après avoir traversé
les lignes, souvent au prix de grands sacrifices ou face au
danger, il s’agit maintenant d’étudier comment les échanges de
cultures sont vécus.

Pages d’ouverture

(p. 68-69)

(p. 69)
Corrigé
(picture 1) This is Canada (by elimination). This must be a
sort of commemorative mural, a tribute to Indian tribes, showing
respect for them as Native Canadians and letting them know
that their contribution to Canadian society is appreciated. (This
is brought out in the video p. 77.)
(picture 2) This is the USA. We know this from the sign on the
shop (...USA) and the slogan on the truck (America, love it or
leave it!). This is probably a street in Chinatown in one of the big
US cities.
(picture 3) This is almost certainly the UK because the girls are
wearing school uniforms, something that is much less common
in North America. This is probably the playground of an inner-city
school where there is a huge non-white and/or Moslem/Muslim
population, e.g. London, Birmingham...
(picture 4) From the St George’s cross, we know that this is the
UK. This is either a gathering of football supporters (note the red
T-shirts) or a mixture of players and supporters in the changing
rooms. Red and white are the traditional England colours and the
colours of the St George’s cross, the flag of England (not of the
UK). This flag has become associated not only with football but
with patriotism and far-right political parties.
(examples)
Picture 1: it is reassuring that Canadian society values the
contribution of Native Canadians.
Picture 2: the slogan is provocative, especially because it is
going through a district crammed with immigrants, because,
although it doesn’t mention immigrants by name (it could, after
all, apply to any US citizen), it says that if you start complaining
about anything or criticising the USA, you should leave the
country (implying, “go back where you came from”).
Picture 3: the fact that two of the girls are wearing headscarves,
denoting they are Moslem, is something that French people may
find disturbing and provocative.

Picture 4: It is unexpected to see a black English football
supporter who has no problems sporting the St George’s flag. He
considers himself as English as his friends. This image might
shock far-right racist politicians who might think a black man
has no right to identify with “Englishness” .
(students’ own answers)

The Apache Girl

(p. 70-71)

(p. 70)
Corrigé
(exemple) The present day situation of Native Americans in the
USA shows many contrasts. Some Native Americans have grown
rich from tourism and from running casinos on their reservations.
Others have worked hard and managed to become integrated into
American society. However, alcoholism is widespread and there
are high unemployment rates among Native Americans, resulting
in the fact that many live on the poverty line.
The picture shows an American school bus on a dirt road in
the Arizona desert near Monument Valley, home to the Navajos.
The Apaches are one of the many tribes that make up the Navajo
Nation. The text therefore will probably be about the life of an
Apache girl in this remote region where huge distances have to
be covered to access public services.
(p. 70)
Corrigé
The two main characters are Lucinda Ridder and Agnes
Hooper. They are on a school bus coming back from the local
high school. Agnes is the bus driver. Lucinda is a student.
Lucinda always sits at the very back of the school bus
because that is where the other childrent have told her to sit.
This reveals that she has no friends as no one ever sits at the
back with her.
Lucinda is of Apache origin. The Apaches were a tribe which
managed to resist the white settlers and soldiers for a long time.
The other children on the bus reject her because of her origins.
Agnes feels sorry for the girl but she has never yet done
anything to help improve Lucinda’s integration. However, here,
for the first time, Agnes says a few kind words as Lucinda is
getting off the bus.
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012 43

4 Living Together
Lucinda is obviously not happy living with her grandmother

The solitary aspect of the place and the unkempt and derelict

(cf. lines 44-48: “Agnes was struck [...] must be far worse”).
We have the feeling that Lucinda has lived an extremely
solitary and lonely life with no one to help her or to be her friend.

environment echo the inner solitude and (apparent) frailty of
the girl. The hostility of the weather echoes that of the people
she has to live with.
teamfile-p70-4
The Apache wars took place between 1851 and 1906 in the
south-western part of the United States, in New Mexico and
Arizona.
The Apaches fought against American settlers and the
United States army. They stole property and killed Mexicans and
Americans. They fought because their lands were being taken
away from them.
Cochise was an Apache leader who fought against Mexican
and American encroachment on Apache lands. He raided American
settlements and often won the battles because the Americans
were too preoccupied at the time by their own civil war and
because the Apaches had a better knowledge of the terrain. Many
people died on both sides. A peaceful treaty was negociated in the
end and Cochise died a free man on his reservation.
Geronimo was also a famous Apache leader who fought against
Mexican and American expropriation of their lands. Like Cochise
he raided their settlements and towns but, unlike Cochise, he
surrendered and died a prisoner far away from his homeland.
“Code name Geronimo” was the name initially given to the
military operation that ended in the death of Osama bin Laden in
2011. Some Native Americans disapproved of the name given to
the code as it continued to perpetuate the image of the warrior
Indian. Geronimo’s great-grandson said that the operation’s
name was “an outrageous insult”. The name was eventually
changed to “Operation Neptune Spear”.
The children reflect their parents’ perception of Indians
which results from past conflicts.
(students’ own answers)

(p. 70)
Pas de corrigé type ici. Nous nous sommes placés dans la
phase 1 de l’expression écrite au baccalauréat qui vise surtout
l’expression au niveau B1 pour le premier sujet (narration) pour
aller vers le niveau B2 (argumentation) dans le second.
(p. 70)
Corrigé
teamfile-p70-1

a. Her mother is in prison, b. Her father is dead, c. Her
grandmother’s name is Catherine Yates and she is a widow.
She is of Apache origin. The white students refuse to be
friends with her because of the past violence of the Apaches in
Arizona.
Lucinda is a “scrawny, homely girl”, with “bone-thin arms”
and “thick eye-shrinking glasses”. She is not pretty.
Lucinda is of Apache descent but her family on her
father’s side was white. Lucinda does not look Indian. “Lucy’s
Indian blood had been diluted enough [...] so she didn’t look
particularly Indian.” However, the fact that she is partly white or
does not look Indian does not matter for the other children on
the bus. What counts is that she has Indian blood. Her physical
appearance (skinny with thick glasses) does not help.
lonely, slow, sad, silent, skinny.
She has never received any kindness from her family either.
teamfile-p70-2
Agnes Hooper is the school bus driver.
compassionate, sympathetic, kind, well-intentioned.
These adjectives reveal that she feels sympathy for Lucinda.
It may be that she feels this way because she herself was a
lonely girl when she was young and Lucinda is friendless.
Agnes’s point of view is expressed in both quotes.
The italics mean that the word “look” is emphasised when
said; it therefore suggests that this is what Agnes thinks or has
said at some time.
It distances the narrator from the local inhabitants whose
point of view this is.
There are no quotes in the extract which illustrate Lucinda’s
point of view. Lucinda is seen from other people’s point of view.
This reinforces her isolation.
teamfile-p70-3
a. long dirt trail, thick cloud, crooked wooden post, narrow
turnaround space,
b. The action takes place in a poor and remote rural area reached
by rough, unmade-up roads.
dismal, depressing, heartbreaking.
The place: dirty, trailing (dust), blustery, weed-clogged.
The girl: scrawny, homely, friendless, stubborn, silent, half-hearted.
Things: heavy (backpack), ungainly.
44

Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

WORDWORK

(p. 71)

Corrigé
wordfile-p71-1a/1b
A. 1. (adj.)/g, 2. (n)./i, 3. adj.)/k, 4. (n.)/b, 5. (n.)/d, 6. (v.)/j,
7. (adj.)/c, 8. (adj.)/l, 9. (n.)/m, 10. (adv.)/f, 11. (adj.)/a, 12.
(adj.)/h, 13. (n.)/e.
B. 1. her thick, eye-shrinking glasses
2. with her bone-thin arms
3. Agnes Hooper’s supposedly food-free bus
4. they no longer bothered to tease her
5. (Agnes) was struck by the girl’s obvious reluctance to exit the
bus
6. she squinted her eyes to keep out the dust
C. 1. The yellow school bus rumbled down the long dirt trail
known as Middlemarch Road, throwing up a thick cloud of red
dust that swirled high into the air behind it.
2. Lucy finally stepped off the bus onto the weed-clogged shoulder
3. It took several moves to maneuver the ungainly bus in the
narrow turnaround that had been bulldozed into the shoulder of
the road.
4. She squinted her eyes to keep out the dust, but she didn’t
raise a hand to ward off the flying gravel and grit

livre du professeur

wordfile-p71-2
A. 1/h, 2/p, 3/g, 4/l, 5/o, 6/m, 7/c, 8/a, 9/j, 10/i, 11/r, 12/n, 13/f,
14/d, 15/e, 16/t, 17/k, 18/b, 19/q, 20/s.
B. 1. loneliness, 2. privacy, 3. emptiness, 4. quiet, 5. hopeless.
TRANSLATOR’S WORKSHOP

(p. 71)

Corrigé
Le cœur tendre de la conductrice du car éprouvait de la
compassion pour cette adolescente étrange et férocement
silencieuse. Après tout, ce n’était pas la faute de Lucinda Ridder
si son père était mort, si sa mère était en prison et si elle avait
elle-même été contrainte de venir vivre avec sa grand’mère
veuve, Catherine Yates, dont le propre arrière-grandpère avait
été un chef Apache célèbre. Le sang indien de Lucy avait été
relativement dilué par son grandpère et son père de telle
sorte qu’on ne détectait rien de particulièrement indien en elle.
Cependant, dans cette contrée rurale du sud-est de l’Arizona
où les événements qui avaient marqué les guerres contre les
Apaches avaient toujours de l’importance, les gens savaient qui
elle était et qui étaient ses ancêtres. Et pour/comme tout ce qui
concernait les Apaches, à quoi pouvait-on s’attendre ?

PROJECT

(p. 71)
Le but de l’activité est de faire communiquer les élèves autour de
la thématique présentée dans le texte. Si la classe est habituée à
parler en anglais en petits groupes, la communication entre les
élèves pour constituer le questionnaire s’effectuera en anglais.
Il se peut que quelques groupes parlent en anglais tandis que
d’autres, qui sont plus en difficulté, parlent en français. Cela
dépend également de la période de l’année à laquelle ce chapitre
sera étudié.
Le but du questionnaire est également de réinvestir le lexique
du texte (voir Wordwork) et de faciliter ainsi sa mémorisation.
La comparaison des questionnaires produits par chaque groupe
permet de faire une synthèse globale du travail de la classe et de
mobiliser à nouveau les savoirs lexicaux. Les questions peuvent
enfin être l’occasion d’aborder les problèmes rencontrés par les
jeunes dans leurs établissements scolaires et d’évoquer des
pistes de solutions.

Why Bother?

(p. 72)
(p. 72)

Corrigé
The cartoon is superficially about wealthy English or
American tourists in Paris who believe that “money talks”, which
removes any need for them to speak French. By extension,
the cartoonist could also be seen to be making a more general
comment on the arrogance of certain people when travelling
abroad, notably those who spend a lot of money and believe
that the local population should be grateful and make an effort
to speak the travellers’ language. Such people believe that it’s
not up to them to make any effort to speak the language of the
country they are visiting.
The question “Why bother?” can be applied to native English
speakers travelling abroad who believe that learning the language

of the countries they are visiting is a waste of time because most
of the people they encounter will speak some English.
(p. 72)
Script
tapescript14-p72
RACHEL: Has the film started yet? I want to watch that.
MOTHER: Have you finished your homework already, Rachel?
RACHEL: Yeah.
DAVID: Even the French translation you said you had to do?
RACHEL: Well... no, but it doesn’t matter. It’s the last bit of French
homework this year, and I’m going to drop French next year
anyway, so...
MOTHER: What do you mean, “drop French next year” ? You can’t
do that, can you?
RACHEL: Yeah I can if I want to. Let’s face it, I’m not exactly top of
the class in it, am I?
DAVID: That’s just because you’re lazy. You don’t take the time to
learn the vocabulary. You said so yourself.
RACHEL: Yeah, all right. But I’d be better off doing more Maths and
Science.
MOTHER: Better off? Better off for what?
RACHEL: For getting a job of course.
DAVID: As what? A nuclear scientist perhaps?
MOTHER: Don’t be silly, David. Rachel, you’re only fourteen.
RACHEL: So?
MOTHER: Well, you want to go to university later on, don’t you?
RACHEL: So you keep telling me.
MOTHER: There’s no reason why you shouldn’t.
RACHEL: Yeah, maybe.
MOTHER: So you’re years away from having to get a job.
RACHEL: That’s no reason not to be thinking about it now, is it?
You’re the one who’s always telling me to think ahead.
MOTHER: But learning another language is so important...
RACHEL: How is it important?
MOTHER: Well... Look, if you want to bring everything down to how
employable you’re going to be, look at is this way: you might
have to travel abroad a lot, even work abroad for some time.
Everything’s global these days. Speaking a foreign language
means that employers see you as as... as a bridge to new
clients or customers overseas.
DAVID: Oh come on, Mum, global business is done in English. The
whole world’s falling over backwards to learn English – the
Chinese, the Japanese, everyone... And, in Europe...
MOTHER: In Europe, there are 23 official languages, and the Union
actively encourages everyone to speak at least one foreign
language.
DAVID: Yeah, so they say, but the truth of it is that, if you actually
go to the EU offices in Brussels, I bet you find pretty much
everybody talking to each other in English, or maybe French.
MOTHER: French, yes, exactly. A lot of people speak French.
DAVID: Oh yeah? How many?
MOTHER: I don’t know. Lots.
RACHEL: Nowhere near as many as speak English though.
MOTHER: That’s not the point. Everyone should learn a foreign
language – to expand your personal horizons, to become
more rounded, more... tolerant, more... altruistic!
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

45

4 Living Together
RACHEL: Altru...what?
DAVID: Altruistic. It means caring about other people.
MOTHER: It means understanding other cultures, knowing how
other nations tick, understanding each other. You come
to realise that just because some people speak another
language, it doesn’t mean they can’t express the same ideas
or feelings as you can. The whole problem with Englishspeakers is that we’re too arrogant, too superior, too... too
insular...
DAVID: Especially the Americans.
MOTHER: America isn’t an island, David. You can’t be American and
insular at the same time.
DAVID: Oh, don’t be so pedantic, Mum. You know what I mean.
RACHEL: What does “pedantic” mean?
MOTHER: Speaking a foreign language also makes you more
imaginative – more open-minded. And if you’re going into
business, that’s what you’ve got to be.
RACHEL: I don’t know if I want to go into business...
DAVID: But you don’t have to speak a foreign language in order to
be imaginative and open-minded!
MOTHER: No, perhaps not, but it helps. And I read somewhere that
learning a language improves a student’s grades in other
subjects, so, if you must be pragmatic about everything, it’s
something that will look good on a university application.
DAVID: Maybe. Depends what course you want to do.
RACHEL: What does “pragmatic” mean?
Corrigé
Rachel, David and their mother are talking. Rachel is 14 years
old and she is David’s younger sister.
It is Rachel’s decision to drop French at school the following
year. Her reasons are that she isn’t good enough and she thinks
taking more Maths and Science will give her a better chance of
getting a job later on.
Her mother is shocked. David teases her.
The discussion that follows is about whether or not speaking
another language than English is important for getting a job.
Arguments for speaking another language, stated by the
mother:
– it will help you get a job;
– it improves your grades in other subjects;
– it can help you get into university;
– it expands your horizons/makes you less insular/makes you
more open-minded and imaginative;
– it makes you more altruistic/makes you understand others better.
Arguments against speaking another language, stated by David:
– all global business is done in English;
– you can be open-minded without learning a foreign language.
The young tend to think of education in terms of what will
be useful to them in getting a job whereas the older generation
is more concerned that education should build character and
improve the mind.
(p. 72)
Entraînement à la partie “argumentation/défense de ses opinions” des tâches d’expression.
46

Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

Corrigé
Firstly, learning another language is helpful in the workplace.
Business these days knows no borders, and being in touch with
people in other countries is a crucial feature of a successful
company.
Secondly, nowadays, it is highly likely that we will regularly
meet people who speak a different language from us. Knowing
one or more foreign languages will enable us to communicate
with and learn from such people.
Finally, learning another language is important in terms of our
personal development: it gives us access to a different culture.
Even though visiting a country is a first step towards discovering
a new culture, speaking the language of that country gives
us a much deeper understanding. Each culture has different
traditions and social conventions that affect communication.
Speaking the language is crucial to understanding these.
In a world that is becoming increasingly multicultural and where
people from different horizons meet daily, not being able to
speak another language is a hindrance for both communication
and personal development.
WORDWORK

(p. 72)
Cet exercice prend la forme du compte rendu qui sera demandé
aux élèves le jour de l’examen oral, partie compréhension.
Corrigé
wordfile-p72-1a
La famille de Rachel se prépare à regarder un film. Sa mère lui
demande si elle a terminé ses devoirs et Rachel répond que
oui. Mais son frère sent qu’elle ment et lui demande si elle a
vraiment fini sa traduction de français. Rachel admet que ce
n’est pas le cas mais que cela n’a pas d’importance puisqu’elle
va abandonner l’étude du français l’année prochaine. Sa mère
s’emporte et lui dit que c’est hors de question mais Rachel
rétorque que de toute façon elle est très mauvaise en français
et que ce serait plus utile pour elle de mettre l’accent sur les
maths et les sciences.
Son frère l’accuse d’être tout simplement paresseuse et elle
reconnaît qu’elle ne fait pas l’effort d’apprendre le vocabulaire.
Rachel soutient que les maths et les sciences lui donneront
une plus grande chance de trouver un travail, mais son frère
se moque d’elle et lui demande si elle envisage d’étudier la
physique nucléaire à 14 ans. Sa mère lui dit qu’il faut déjà
penser à aller à l’université et qu’à son âge il est un peu tôt pour
s’engager dans une voie plutôt qu’une autre. Elle essaie de la
convaincre de l’importance qu’il y a à apprendre une langue
étrangère, non seulement pour voyager mais aussi pour trouver
plus facilement un emploi.
David rappelle à sa mère que le commerce international se fait
en anglais, que le monde entier tient absolument à apprendre
la langue, et que même dans l’Union européenne la plupart des
échanges se font en anglais et plus rarement en français.
La mère de Rachel argue que l’apprentissage d’une langue
étrangère a d’autres avantages et que cela contribue à
rendre les gens plus ouverts/tolérants. Elle ajoute que les
anglophones ont une tendance à l’arrogance et à se renfermer
sur eux-mêmes et qu’être polyglotte est un avantage dans
le monde des affaires. Elle termine en disant que la maîtrise

livre du professeur

d’une langue étrangère ne nuit pas sur un CV. Rachel a du mal
à suivre les arguments de sa mère car elle ne comprend pas les
mots « altruisme » et « pragmatisme ».
wordfile-p72-1b
1/a/d/e/g/h/i/
2/a/b/e/g/i/k/l.
3/a/c/d/f/g/h/(i)/k.
wordfile-p72-2


Country
Bulgaria
the Czech
Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Ireland
Italy
Latvia
Lithuania
Malta
the
Netherlands
Poland
Portugal
Romania*
Slovakia
Slovenia
Sweden
The United
Kingdom

Inhabitants
(singular)
a Bulgarian
a Czech

Inhabitants
(plural)
the Bulgarians
the Czechs

Language
spoken
Bulgarian
Czech

a Dane
an Estonian
a Finn
a Frenchman/a
Frenchwoman
a German
a Greek
a Hungarian
an Irishman,
an Irishwoman
an Italian
a Latvian
a Lithuanian
a Maltese
a Dutchman,
a Dutch woman
a Pole
a Portuguese
man/woman
a Romanian*
a Slovak
a Slovene
a Spaniard
a Swede
a Briton**

the Danes
the Estonians
the Finns
the French

Danish
Estonian
Finnish
French

the Germans
the Greeks
the Hungarians
the Irish
the Italians
the Latvians
the Lithuanians
the Maltese
the Dutch

German
Greek
Hungarian
English,
Gaelic
Italian
Latvian
Lithuanian
Maltese
Dutch

the Polish
the Portuguese

Polish
Portuguese

the Romanians*
the Slovaks
the Slovenes
the Spaniards
the Swedes
the British**

Romanian*
Slovak
Slovene
Spanish
Swedish
English

* One still finds the old spelling: Roumania, Roumanian.
** Many Britons identify themselves more as English (an
Englishman/an English woman), Scottish or Scots (a
Scotsman/a Scots woman), Welsh (a Welshman/a Welsh
woman) or Northern Irish (a Norther Irishman/Irishwoman).
a. Spain, b. Spain, c. Spain and France, d. Wales (UK), e.
Ireland and Scotland, f. Belgium.
(p. 72)
Corrigé
teamfile-p72-1
Three people are talking. Their names are Rachel, David and
the third is their mother. Rachel is 14 years old and she is David’s
younger sister.

David is Rachel’s older brother and he teases her quite a bit.
The mother seems to have a lot more influence on Rachel than
she does on David. David comes across as the most confident
because he teases Rachel, and gives fairly short and dismissive
answers to his mother.
Rachel says she wants to drop French at school next year.
Her mother disagrees with this decision because she thinks that
learning foreign languages is very important for Rachel’s future.
They are discussing the usefulness of speaking another
language, both for employment and for personal development.
Altruistic: helping others without any benefit to oneself.
Pedantic: attaching too much attention to unimportant details.
teamfile-p72-2
She thinks it would be better for her to learn more Maths and
Science.
She thinks this will be better for her employment prospects.
The mother assumes her daughter will go to university.
No she doesn’t. “So you’re years away from having to think
about a job”.
She says that her mother is always advising her to think ahead,
so she thinks that it is not too early to start thinking about a job.
Rachel is not sure she would like to go into business.
teamfile-p72-3
Because they think that speaking a foreign language will
help the company get more business abroad (“Employers see
you as a bridge to new clients abroad”).
The European Union has 23 official languages and they actively
encourage everyone to speak at least one foreign language.
It expands your personal horizons and makes you more
rounded, more tolerant, more altruistic, more open-minded and
more imaginative.
She thinks they are too arrogant and too insular.
She implies that they believe people speaking another
language cannot express the same ideas or feelings as they can.
It makes you a more employable. It makes you a more
altruistic person. It makes you more open-minded. It helps you
get better grades in other subjects.
teamfile-p72-4
“The whole world is falling over backwards to learn English.”
No, he doesn’t: “Oh come on mum, global business is done
in English.”
He thinks everyone speaks either English or French, but that
most people communicate in English.
He thinks they are too insular (a misuse of the word
“insular”). What he means is that they are very inward-looking;
they regard their own country as superior to others.
He says that everyone speaks English so it is not important
for business. He says that it is only important in certain
situations, i.e. for certain courses at university.

PRONUNCIATION
Script
1. There’s not much left, is there?
2. Where’ve you been?
3. Who do you think it was?

(p. 73)
tapescript15-p72

Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

47

4 Living Together
4. What does it matter?
5. Why don’t you ask your father?
6. How do you know it is true?
7. What does he want you to do?
8. Where did you find that?
Corrigé
1/g, 2/e, 3/h, 4/a, 5/b, 6/c, 7/f, 8/d.
NB. When writing out the questions in full, it is impossible to “decontract” number 5.

Lasagna and Chips

(p. 73)
Script
tapescript16-p73
PRESENTER: Of all the countries in Europe, it is perhaps Britain that
has seen the greatest changes to its eating habits over the
last fifty years. Not just the food on restaurant menus, but
also what’s on the supermarket shelves and what’s being
cooked and served up in homes all over the country. With
me here is cookery writer Jacqueline Moss to tell us how and
why this has come about. So, Jacqueline, has British food
really changed so much?
JACQUELINE: Oh, yes, almost out of all recognition. You have to
remember that, back in the early sixties, most people
thought spaghetti came out of a tin, very few people would
have been able to tell you what a spring roll was, oil was
hardly ever used in cooking, and the only herb in frequent
use was parsley.
PRESENTER: So what happened to change all that?
JACQUELINE: Well, two things really. In the sixties, the economy
was doing well, people were more prosperous and more
and more of them were going abroad for their holidays – to
France, Italy, Spain and Greece mostly – where they came
into contact for the first time with genuine Mediterraneanstyle cuisine.
PRESENTER: Which they liked, I suppose?
JACQUELINE: Oh yes. And with writers like Elizabeth David
popularising it – particularly French and Italian cuisine
– a sort of food culture developed, and quite a lot of food
snobbery too. The foodies of the day were really very snooty
about what was right and what was wrong. Fortunately, you
don’t get so much of that these days.
PRESENTER: You said there were two things...
JACQUELINE: Yes, well, around the same time – the early- to midsixties – immigration began to increase quite steadily. You
began to see quite exotic things in food shops, and there
were Indian restaurants springing up all over the place...
PRESENTER: Not just Indian, surely?
JACQUELINE: No, but the Indian ones tended to be cheaper, so more
people got to taste what Indian food was like. And the British
took to Indian food like a duck to water. Did you know that
curry is now considered one of the most popular dishes
in Britain, and as far as restaurant or takeaway food is
concerned, chicken Tikka Masala is the most popular dish?
PRESENTER: Even more popular than fish and chips?
JACQUELINE: Yes. In fact, British companies even export chicken
Tikka Masala to India and Pakistan, where it supposedly
originated!
48

Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012

PRESENTER: So, does that mean that we in Britain have managed to
assimilate all sorts of international influences and produce...
well, what? A new British cuisine?
JACQUELINE: Yes and no. There is definitely an incredible interest in
cookery at all levels of society...
PRESENTER: Probably because of all those TV programmes...
JACQUELINE: Yes, certainly, that’s helped a lot. And people are
experimenting more, trying out new ideas, combining
ideas from different origins... But, on the other hand, I’m
afraid some people just haven’t quite grasped what it’s all
about. You get some really strange combinations on menus
sometimes...
PRESENTER: Like what, for example?
JACQUELINE: Well, how do you fancy lasagna and chips?
PRESENTER: Ah... yes. I see what you mean.

Help on new words

(p. 73)
Corrigé
Parsley. The French translation persil has five letters in
common.
spaghetti (NB. uncountable, invariable noun in English),
spring roll (Chinese cuisine), oil, curry (NB used as both a
countable and uncountable noun), chicken Tikka Masala (see
the explanation in the textbook), lasagna (invariable, singular or
plural, usually uncountable), chips (NB. chips UK = French fries
USA ; chips USA = crisps UK).

Listen and write a summary

(p. 73)
Corrigé
Comme d’habitude, il s’agit avant tout ici d’entraîner les élèves
même si on les évalue en fin de parcours. Il est donc conseillé
de les inviter à lire les conseils, consignes et tips donnés dans
la première partie de cette page. Et comme il est question
d’entraînement, il est conseillé de pratiquer également l’entraide
en travaillant à plusieurs.
Le sujet de cette échange, qu’il convient d’identifier comme une
interview radiophonique ou télévisée, porte sur l’extraordinaire
révolution culinaire qui a eu lieu au Royaume-Uni depuis la fin
des années 1950. Ce qui est important que les élèves repèrent
concerne les causes de cette révolution, à savoir l’amélioration
du niveau de vie des Britanniques dix ans après la fin de la
Seconde guerre mondiale, l’habitude prise par les vacanciers
de voyager dans les pays méditerranéens où ils ont appris à
connaître et à apprécier d’autres façons de cuisiner et de se
nourrir, ainsi que l’influence des habitudes alimentaires des
populations immigrées, en particulier de celles en provenance
du sous-continent indien. Une compéhension plus fine sera
valorisée si il est clairement mis en avant :
– qu’une certaine forme de snobbisme s’est également
développée concernant la cuisine ;
– que les nombreux livres et émissions télévisées ont joué un
rôle important dans cette mutation ;
– que les leçons n’ont pas toujours été bien assimilées et
donnent naissance à de curieux mélanges... ;
– que de façon assez surprenante la Grande-Bretagne exporte
« sa » cuisine exotique vers les pays d’où elle est censée venir !

livre du professeur

Talk about the theme

(p. 73)
Pas de corrigé type ici, bien entendu, mais quelques éléments de
méthode pour entraîner l’élève à la seconde partie de l’épreuve
orale. Pour ce faire, nous renvoyons aux conseils déjà donnés
dans le premier chapitre.
Ici il sera question d’aider les élèves à définir la notion « d’espace
et d’échanges ». Il nous paraît utile, pour éviter l’apprentissage
par cœur de définitions de ces notions du programme, somme
toute, assez vagues et peut-être abstraites pour les élèves, de
« souffler » des exemples concrets comme nous le faisons ici
sous le n° 1. L’apprentissage et la mémorisation du contenu de la
boîte lexicale nous paraissent aussi primordiaux.

Language Corner

(p. 74-75)

Talking about who decides what
Les activités d’observation et de réflexion ont pour but d’attirer
l’attention des élèves sur l’absence de concordance des temps
et de désinences de conjugaison entraînées par un certain
nombre de verbes véhiculant l’idée d’autorité imposée à autrui.
Certains découvriront peut-être que « la troisième personne
du singulier » d’un verbe n’est pas toujours marquée par la
présence du « s ».
Corrigé
Observation/réflexion
decreed.
sit.
3e personne du singulier sans « s », mais aussi absence de
concordance des temps, decreed étant au pluperfect.
Pour aider les élèves à justifier le recours à la base verbale
qui est ici l’équivalent d’un subjonctif, leur demander quel modal
ils insèreraient entre she et sit sans changer le sens de l’énoncé.
(On peut envisager should mais aussi must, ce qui donnerait
également l’occasion de rappeler la présence de must dans les
contextes passés, et les formes relevant du discours indirect,
ce qui est le cas ici.)
On pourra aussi rappeler que le fait de dire à quelqu’un de
faire quelque chose ne préjuge pas de la réalisation de l’action
ordonnée ou suggérée... d’où le recours en français au subjonctif,
mode de l’irréel, et à la base verbale en anglais : l’action n’étant
pas réalisée au moment où elle est mentionnée, l’anglais, dans
sa grande logique, ne marque aucune trace de conjugaison.
Application/expression
(Exercice d’expression en contexte dont le but est d’utiliser
l’équivalent du subjonctif français. Types d’énoncés possibles :)
a. The school bus rules stipulated that food be kept out of the
bus/that no food be brought on the bus, etc.
b. The US highway code requires that bus drivers turn on/flash
their warning lights whenever the bus stops.
(On en profitera pour rappeler que les automobilistes doivent
aussi s’arrêter quel que soit le sens de circulation et en aucun
cas dépasser ou croiser le car scolaire avant qu’il n’ait repris sa
route... Belle phrase en perspective... Voir exercice n° 2).
c. She could have suggested that the students be kinder to
Lucinda/stop bullying her/show compassion, etc.

d. School authorities should decree that bullying be forbidden
and severely punished.
(But : attirer l’attention des élèves sur les diverses façons de
rendre le subjonctif.)
a. The US highway code requires that drivers stop when they are
behind or meeting a school bus loading or unloading students.
b. After her mother was sentenced to jail, the court ordered that
Lucinda go and live with her grandmother.
c. The local residents had asked that a space be cleared for the
school bus to turn round in.
d. They are now fighting for the county to have the (hard)
shoulders and ditches cleaned/cleared.
e. The city council has decreed that the speed limit be limited to
15 miles an hour (mph) when driving past all schools.
f. Parents insisted/demanded that their children should not
cohabit with children of Apache descent.
g. Lucy waited for the bus to be out of sight before waving her
hand. (autre façon de traduire le subjonctif)
h. She capped her hand over her eyes/used her hand as an
eyeshade so as to keep the dust raised by the bus from getting
into her eyes.

Obligation or certainty?
Attirer l’attention des élèves pour éviter la confusion entre les
valeurs pragmatiques et épistémiques de must et have to...
sans employer ces mots barbares qu’ils rencontreront en
troisième cycle.
Corrigé
Observation/réflexion
quasi certitude de l’énonciateur : had to be pure torture,
must be far worse.
obligation/nécessité : the French translation [...] you had to do
Le point de vue d’Agnes.
Oui. La nuance est faible et nous n’entrerons pas dans les
détails à ce niveau d’étude.
Rappel : l’énoncé donné en exemple pourrait être produit par
tout lecteur commentant la situation de Lucinda.
Tout, le lycée et le trajet en car pour s’y rendre, devait être
pure et simple torture pour elle.
Agnes imaginait que tout ce qui pouvait l’attendre à la maison
devait être bien pis encore.
Même la traduction de français que tu disais avoir à faire/que
selon toi tu devais faire ?
On remarque que le verbe devoir peut offrir les mêmes ambiguïtés que must et have to, ce qui n’est pas le cas de « avoir à ».
Application/expression
(Obligation et nécessité dans un contexte passé.)
a. She had to switch on the bus’s blinking red lights.
b. She had to remain seated in the back row.
c. She had to go and live with her grandmother.
d. The driver had to maneuver the bus to turn back.
e. She had to squint her eyes.
(Certitude. En fait nous demandons aux élèves de donner
leur avis sur des faits passés.)
a. Her grandmother’s home must have been located in a very
remote place.
Livre du professeur New On Target Term © BELIN 2012 49


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