Fichier PDF

Partagez, hébergez et archivez facilement vos documents au format PDF

Partager un fichier Mes fichiers Boite à outils PDF Recherche Aide Contact



Anglais .pdf



Nom original: Anglais.pdf
Titre: 95389_Malleavant.indd
Auteur: marc

Ce document au format PDF 1.3 a été généré par Adobe InDesign CS5 (7.0) / Acrobat Distiller 8.3.1 (Macintosh), et a été envoyé sur fichier-pdf.fr le 07/10/2013 à 23:59, depuis l'adresse IP 41.105.x.x. La présente page de téléchargement du fichier a été vue 85326 fois.
Taille du document: 4.4 Mo (432 pages).
Confidentialité: fichier public




Télécharger le fichier (PDF)









Aperçu du document


Meeting Point T

LE

Toutes séries
Directrice d’ouvrage et auteur :

Josette STARCK
Lycée Richelieu, Rueil-Malmaison
Auteurs :

Dominique SANTONI
Collège-Lycée Buffon, Paris

Véronique JAUBERT
Lycée Jacques-Prévert, Longjumeau

Pascale CAMPS-VAQUER
Collège Les Vallées, La Garenne-Colombes
Formatrice et tutrice

Lucile MENU
Lycée Richelieu, Rueil-Malmaison

Maël JOYEUX
Lycée François-Villon, Les Mureaux

Pryscilla HEBEL
Lycée Evariste-Galois, Sartrouville

Stephanie SOUTHALL
Durham University

Cynthia BENREY
Lycée international, Saint-Germain-en-Laye

Paul LARREYA
Professeur en linguistique

Avec la participation de :
Loa Mills, TZR Hauts-de-Seine
Mary Feeney
Hannah Wood
Elisa Grimaldi
David Kendall
Andy Hobday
Marisol Ruelas
Relecture :
Andrew Hamilton
Ruth Phan,
Lycée Charles-de-Gaulle, Poissy
Françoise Laveille, Université Paris
Descartes, Paris V

Conception maquette : Panni Demeter, Marc & Yvette
Mise en page : Marc & Yvette
Iconographie : Nadine Gudimard
Édition : Catherine de Bernis

© Hatier - Paris, 2012

ISBN : 978-2-218-95389-7

Sous réserve des exceptions légales, toute représentation ou reproduction intégrale ou partielle, faite, par quelque procédé que ce soit,
sans le consentement de l’auteur ou de ses ayants droit, est illicite et constitue une contrefaçon sanctionnée par le Code de la Propriété
Intellectuelle. Le CFC est le seul habilité à délivrer des autorisations de reproduction par reprographie, sous réserve en cas d’utilisation
aux fins de vente, de location, de publicité ou de promotion de l’accord de l’auteur ou des ayants droit.

S O M M A I R E
Avant-propos

p. 4

Unit 1

MYTH OR REALITY?

p. 9

Unit 2

THE SWINGING SIXTIES

p. 27

Unit 3

A MAN’S WORLD?

p. 50

Unit 4

BRAVE NEW WORLD?

p. 79

Unit 5

THE LAND OF TWO HALVES

p. 99

Unit 6

WHICH IS WITCH?

p. 116

Unit 7

A COMMON GROUND

p. 134

Unit 8

BORDERLANDS

p. 159

Unit 9

A MATTER OF LIFE AND DEATH

p. 196

Unit 10

THE POWER OF MONEY

p. 233

Unit 11

HIGHER, FASTER, STRONGER

p. 250

Unit 12

THE CORRIDORS OF POWER

p. 278

Unit 13

DIXIELAND

p. 293

Unit 14

BUILDERS AND TITANS

p. 311

Unit 15

WESTERN TRAILS

p. 336

Fiches d’évaluation (fiches photocopiables)

p. 356

Méthodologie (corrigés du manuel)

p. 413

Préparation à l’épreuve écrite du Baccalauréat
(fiches photocopiables)

p. 419

SOM MAI R E

• 3

AVANT-PROPOS
I. STRUCTURE DU MANUEL
Le manuel de Terminale est conçu selon les mêmes principes que ceux de 2de et de 1re et s’articule autour
de 5 activités langagières. Trois unités sont proposées par activité langagière dominante soit 15 unités
au total. Le manuel offre un grand choix de documents, les thématiques sont variées et destinées à
toutes les séries (L, S, ES et séries technologiques). L’unité 3 est intitulée Art Project pour répondre aux
instructions officielles sur l’Histoire des Arts. On retrouvera aussi dans chaque unité matière à aborder
les arts visuels tout au cours de l’année.
• Chaque unité est « raccrochée » à une ou deux notions du programme (affichage clair en début
d’unité et en bas des pages impaires). Ce sont les notions dominantes mais les deux autres notions
ne sont pas exclues. Pour rappel, les notions sont au nombre de quatre :
– Lieux et formes du pouvoir
– Espaces et échanges
– Mythes et héros
– L’idée de progrès
• Des documents authentiques variés, forts, déclencheurs de parole ont été choisis : visuels,
audio, vidéo, textes...
• L’ensemble du manuel propose pour chaque unité un ancrage dans la culture anglo-saxonne.
• Une tâche finale est prévue à la fin de chaque unité avec guidage pour accompagner les élèves dans
sa réalisation. Des tâches intermédiaires (Prepare your task) rythment l’unité et permettent un entraînement dans l’activité langagière dominante tout en préparant à la tâche finale. Il est important de rappeler
néanmoins qu’il n’est pas nécessaire de faire toutes les tâches intermédiaires pour réaliser la tâche
finale. Nous avons voulu avant tout présenter un manuel riche qui permettra de varier les séquences
en fonction des élèves ou des années. Enfin, chaque tâche cible une activité langagière spécifique, et
prépare donc aux différentes épreuves du Baccalauréat.
• Les unités ont été testées dans nos différentes classes et des mises en œuvre actionnelles sont
proposées dans ce Fichier.
• Une évaluation diagnostique portant sur toutes les activités langagières a été prévue pour dresser
le bilan des acquis en début d’année. Sont fournies dans ce Fichier des grilles critériées pour une
éventuelle répartition des élèves en groupes de compétence ou pour évaluer le niveau des élèves
en début d’année dans les différentes activités langagières et orienter votre travail.
• Des évaluations sommatives sont prévues à la fin de chaque « tripler » (un entraînement est proposé
dans le manuel et vous trouverez dans ce Fichier des sujets pour chaque unité avec barèmes et répartition par palier et/ou une note chiffrée à laquelle correspond un palier du CECRL).
• Vous trouverez à la fin du manuel :
– 10 pages d’outils méthodologiques (p. 234-243) : Rédiger un texte - Comprendre un message oral
- Commenter un document visuel - Enrichir sa prise de parole ;
– 4 pages intitulées Fast Facts (p. 258-261). Présentées de manière très visuelle, elles permettent de
s’approprier des repères culturels importants. Le professeur pourra renvoyer les élèves à ces pages
lors de l’étude d’un document.
– 20 pages de Précis grammatical (p. 262-283), que les élèves pourront consulter régulièrement.
Deux autres pages permettront de réviser les Verbes irréguliers (p. 284-285).
Entraînement

Objectif
j f

II. ZOOM SUR LES PAGES DE PRÉPARATION AU BAC
A.

4 •

Rappel sur les nouvelles épreuves du Bac (2013)
Classes de ES, S, STMG et autres séries technologiques. LV1 (B2) / LV2 (B1)
• Épreuve écrite, examen terminal
– Compréhension : un à trois documents d’une longueur calibrée dont certains peuvent comporter
un élément visuel. L’élève répond à des questions sur ce(s) document(s), ciblées selon le niveau attendu (B1 ou B2).
– Expression : l’élève rédige un ou plusieurs textes.

• Épreuve orale, en cours d’année
– Compréhension : au cours du 2e trimestre. L’élève écoute un (ou deux) document(s) inconnu(s),
d’une durée maximale d’une minute trente secondes au total. Trois écoutes sont proposées, puis
l’élève écrit un résumé en français en dix minutes.
– Expression : au cours du 3e trimestre. L’élève tire au sort une des notions étudiées dans l’année,
s’exprime en continu puis en interaction avec l’examinateur.
Classes de L. LV1 (B2) / LV2 (B1)
• Épreuve écrite, examen terminal
– Compréhension : un à trois documents d’une longueur calibrée dont certains peuvent comporter
un élément visuel. L’élève répond à des questions sur ce(s) document(s), ciblées selon le niveau attendu (B1 ou B2).
– Expression : l’élève rédige un ou plusieurs textes.
• Épreuve orale, en cours d’année
– Expression : l’élève présente une liste des notions étudiées dans l’année et les documents qui les
illustrent. L’examinateur choisit une notion, s’ensuit une présentation en continu par l’élève puis en
interaction avec l’examinateur.
Spécialité : langue vivante approfondie (LVA). LV1 (C1) / LV2 (B2)
• Épreuve orale, examen terminal
– Expression : l’élève présente deux dossiers, chacun sur une notion étudiée dans l’année, comportant
deux documents étudiés en classe et un choisi par lui. L’examinateur choisit une notion, s’ensuit une
présentation en continu par l’élève puis en interaction avec l’examinateur.
Littérature en langue étrangère (LELE)
• Épreuve orale, examen terminal
– Expression : l’élève apporte deux dossiers illustrant des thèmes du programme de littérature en
langue étrangère, comportant au minimum trois textes chacun, et tout autre document choisi par lui.
L’examinateur choisit une de ces thématiques, s’ensuit une présentation en continu par l’élève puis
en interaction avec l’examinateur.
Toutes séries. LV3 (A2)
Langue étrangère ou régionale
• Épreuve orale
– Expression : l’élève apporte une liste des notions étudiées dans l’année et les documents qui les
illustrent. L’examinateur choisit une notion, s’ensuit une présentation en continu par l’élève puis en
interaction avec l’examinateur.
Oral de rattrapage. (30’ dont 10’ de préparation)
Les élèves auront le choix entre deux documents inconnus qui porteront chacun sur une notion travaillée pendant l’année (B.O. du 02 03 2012).
B.

Compréhension écrite
& Entraînement
– Les unités 4, 5 et 6 sont centrées sur la compréhension de l’écrit. Pour guider l’élève tout au long
de l’année, on trouvera dans le Workbook des fiches d’entraînement à la lecture qui les aideront à
comprendre les textes proposés dans le manuel. Ils mettront ainsi en place des stratégies transférables.
– Les pages Improve your reading skills proposent une aide méthodologique en contexte à l’aide
de supports en relation avec l’unité. Elles servent aussi à consolider les acquis.
– Reading corner : plusieurs textes longs sont proposés dans le manuel, les fiches photocopiables
sont fournies sur le site compagnon avec leurs corrigés.
– Préparation à l’épreuve écrite : 8 pages de préparation à l’épreuve écrite du Bac permettent
d’entraîner les élèves. 4 textes sont fournis dans le manuel. Les fiches et leurs corrigés se trouvent
dans ce Fichier du professeur (p. 419-430).
– Des pages de méthodologie de la compréhension écrite (p. 100-101 du manuel) permettront
d’acquérir les stratégies essentielles.

AVANT- P R OP OS

• 5

& Évaluation
– Tâches finales dans la dominante langagière.
– Évaluation en fin de chaque unité de « reading ». Les évaluations sont à deux niveaux, en B1
(LV1) et en B2 (LV2).
C.

Compréhension orale
& Entraînement :
- Les 3 unités de Listening (unités 7, 8 et 9) offrent de très nombreux documents authentiques. Ces
derniers sont variés, et ont été testés en classe. L’évaluation sommative se calque sur le schéma du
Baccalauréat avec résumé en français en bout de course à partir de notes prises pendant les écoutes.
– Dans le Workbook, des fiches d’entraînement sur les supports audio sont fournies. Nous les
avons construites autour de trois écoutes pour permettre aux élèves d’acquérir les stratégies nécessaires en contexte. Le transfert sur d’autres supports se fera ainsi plus facilement.
– Des fiches complémentaires sont disponibles sur le site compagnon, ainsi que les scripts et les
corrigés.
– Les pages Improve your listening skills constituent une aide méthodologique en contexte pour
cette activité langagière. Les documents sonores (MP3) sont disponibles pour l’élève sur le site compagnon et permettent un travail autonome en classe ou à la maison.
– Des pages de méthodologie de la compréhension orale (p. 146-147 et 238-239) offrent à l’élève
l’occasion de s’entraîner seul et de consolider ses acquis.
– Des documents MP3 dans les Listening corners sont fournis et peuvent être utilisés soit en entraînement, soit en évaluation. Les fichiers MP3 sur le site compagnon offrent la possibilité à l’élève
de travailler en autonomie à la maison, ce qui n’est pas négligeable étant donné le peu d’heures dont
nous disposons en classe.
– La Clé du Bac constitue un outil précieux pour préparer l’épreuve de compréhension orale. Cette
clé USB contient 20 fichiers de 1’30” maximum au format MP3 sur des sujets variés. Le professeur pourra utiliser ces enregistrements en classe / en labo multimédia pour entraîner ses élèves à
l’épreuve de compréhension orale. Les résumés ainsi que les fiches critériées sont fournis sur la clé
ainsi que les scripts des enregistrements.
& Évaluation
– Tâches finales dans la dominante langagière.
– Une évaluation en fin de chaque unité de Listening est prévue (résumé en français, grille
d’évaluation de la compréhension avec grille critériée dans ce Fichier).

D.

Prise de parole en continu
& Entraînement :
– Les 3 unités de prise de parole en continu (unités 1, 2 et 3) s’appuient, elles aussi, sur de très
nombreux documents authentiques. Ces derniers sont variés, et ont été testés en classe.
– Les pages Improve your speaking skills donnent l’occasion à l’élève d’acquérir les outils nécessaires pour améliorer sa production orale.
– Les doubles pages Speaking corner permettent au professeur d’utiliser des documents
iconographiques, des citations et des documents audio en lien avec l’unité lors d’une évaluation de
la prise de parole en continu ou lors d’examens blancs.
– 10 images vidéoprojetables sont disponibles sur le DVD-Rom et peuvent servir de support pour
rebrasser les acquis de l’unité ou pour une évaluation.
Objectif
j f
– Certaines rubriques Action! du Workbook contiennent des questions
pour aider
l’élève à faire le lien entre le support étudié et la ou les notions au programme. La correction de ces
questions en classe fournira une base sur laquelle l’élève s’appuiera pour prendre la parole à l’oral et
ainsi nourrir le dossier qu’il/elle préparera.
& Évaluation
– Tâches finales dans la dominante langagière.
– L’évaluation sommative se calque sur le schéma du Baccalauréat avec plusieurs documents
iconographiques fournis dans le Fichier pédagogique pour chacune des unités. Un corrigé est fourni
pour un document par unité, les autres étant disponibles sur le site compagnon.

6 •

– En fin de manuel, on trouvera 6 pages de préparation à l’épreuve orale aidant à présenter les notions (p. 244-249). Des pistes de réflexion possibles y sont listées, ce qui permettra à l’élève de nourrir
et d’étoffer sa présentation orale. Ces pages se décomposent ainsi :
• 2 pages de présentation générale ;
• 1 page par notion, soit quatre pages au total.
L’élève trouvera aussi des cartes mentales qui lui permettront de compléter et d’élargir le lexique lié
à la notion.
– À la dernière page de chaque unité (rubrique Get ready for the oral exam), l’élève est invité à
constituer un dossier sur la notion ou les notions en jeu dans le projet pédagogique et ceci y compris
pour les élèves d’autres séries que L. En effet, seuls les élèves de L doivent présenter un dossier mais
rassembler et classer les documents permettra à tous de préparer l’épreuve orale tout au long de
l’année. Voici un exemple de dossier construit sur l’unité 11, Higher, faster, stronger.
Spaces and Exchanges:
- Queen Elizabeth’s Christmas speech
in 2010, p. 163
- Cartoon: Soccer star, p. 169
- Text: Ethics, money and sports…, p. 170
- Poster on the 2012 Irish Paralympic
team, p. 175

The notion of Progress:
- Text: That’s what I like, p. 164
- Cartoon: Trapped on the track, p. 165
- Video: Dream, believe, achieve, p. 166
- Text: Spirit in motion, p. 166-167
- Text: Abuse in sports, p. 168-169
- Cartoon p. 172
- Quotations p. 175

Myths and Heroes:
- Photos of David Weir and Oscar Pistorius, p. 166-167
- Video: Dream, believe, achieve, p. 166
- Text: Spirit in motion, p. 166-167
- Websearch on Jesse Owens and Tommie Smith, p. 168
- Poem: Black and blue, p. 174
Les élèves devront dégager la ou les problématique(s) soulevée(s) par chaque document. Les notes
que les élèves pourront prendre au fur et à mesure qu’ils / elles constitueront leur dossier pourront
être amorcées ainsi (l’exemple fourni ci-dessous est fondé sur les documents de l’unité 13 Dixieland) :
The photographs on page 196 reveal the true state of New Orleans in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina
from a humanitarian point of view, and so I have to say they are incredibly powerful images. The photos
shock us, have a powerful effect on the viewer and therefore are used by journalists to bring home their
point. Journalists try to influence people by showing striking images. If we think of the news on TV, it is
clear that little is said but vivid images are shown to shock the audience. That is why I believe this document illustrates the notion of power very well. I would add the accompanying text into this category as
well as it is also very truthful and moving.
E.

Production orale en interaction
& Entraînement
– 3 unités de prise de parole en interaction (unités 10, 11 et 12) offrent de très nombreux documents authentiques. Ces derniers sont variés, et ont été testés en classe.
– Les pages Improve your speaking skills donnent l’occasion à l’élève d’acquérir les outils nécessaires pour améliorer sa production orale.
– Les doubles pages Speaking corner permettent au professeur d’utiliser des documents
iconographiques, des citations et des textes en lien avec l’unité lors d’une évaluation de la prise de
parole en interaction ou lors d’examens blancs.
– Tout au long du manuel des scénarisations (saynètes, débats, discours...), mais aussi des travaux de
groupes sont suggérés au professeur et permettent à l’élève de réinvestir ce qu’il / elle a appris en cours.
– Dans les pages Enrichir sa prise de parole (p. 242-243), l’élève puisera les structures dont il a
besoin pour s’exprimer et étoffer ses énoncés.

AVANT- P R OP OS

• 7

& Évaluation
– Tâches finales dans la dominante langagière.
– L’évaluation sommative à la fin de ce tripler permet d’utiliser différents documents sur lesquels
les élèves réagiront en groupe de deux ou plus.
F.

Production écrite
& Entraînement :
– 3 unités de writing (unités 13, 14 et 15) offrent de très nombreux documents authentiques. Ces
derniers sont variés, et ont été testés en classe.
– Les pages Improve your writing skills donnent l’occasion à l’élève d’acquérir les outils nécessaires
pour améliorer sa production écrite.
– Tout au long du manuel des productions écrites (lettre, dialogue, récit...) sont suggérées au professeur et permettent à l’élève de réinvestir ce qu’il a appris en cours.
– Tout au long du manuel les pages de Language at work sont consacrées à la grammaire :
• l’élève pourra manipuler les faits de langue. La rubrique On your own! a été intégrée afin que la grammaire soit systématiquement utilisée en contexte et reliée au thème.
• une rubrique Grammar in action! offre la possibilité aux élèves d’utiliser la grammaire de façon un
peu plus ludique et moins contraignante.
– Le rabat avant « Relire sa copie » s’avèrera utile lorsqu’un élève voudra relire son devoir avec attention et éliminer les erreurs les plus courantes.
& Évaluation
– Tâches finales dans la dominante langagière
– La double page d’évaluation sommative (p. 232-233) a pour but de faire prendre conscience aux
élèves des stratégies à mettre en œuvre pour chaque type de production.
– Quatre pages intitulées « Rédiger un texte » (p. 234-237) permettent d’entraîner les élèves de
façon rigoureuse à chaque type de production écrite.

III. LES PÉRIPHÉRIQUES
• Un Workbook de 96 pages avec des fiches d’entraînement et des aides à la prise de parole.
• Trois CD audio classe avec les documents liés aux activités du manuel, notamment aux évaluations,
et les rubriques Help!
• Un DVD-Rom avec 14 vidéos et 10 images vidéoprojetables, ainsi que leur exploitation pédagogique imprimable.
• Un site compagnon avec tous les MP3 élève (dont 8 textes du manuel enregistrés), de nombreuses
ressources pour l’enseignant (dont une liste de sites Internet pour aller plus loin sur certains sujets)
et une FAQ qui sera alimentée au fur et à mesure des questions qui nous seront posées.
• Un manuel interactif enrichi enseignant : sur un seul support, le manuel, l’audio classe, l’audio
élève, les vidéos, les images vidéoprojetables, le Fichier pédagogique, les fiches photocopiables et les
corrigés. Ce manuel est réservé à un usage individuel, mais trois copies sont autorisées (une installation sur un poste et deux copies sur clé USB).
• Un manuel interactif enrichi élève comprenant le manuel et les fichiers audio élève.
• La Clé du Bac avec 20 documents audio d’une durée maximale de 1’30’’, leur script, les résumés
en français et des grilles d’évaluation critériées.
Les unités du manuel ont été testées et les mises en œuvre proposées et détaillées dans le Fichier
pédagogique sont le fruit de nos expériences en classe.
Nous serons très intéressés par vos remarques, suggestions et critiques sur cet ouvrage.
(Hatier, 8 rue d’Assas, 75278 Paris Cedex 06)
Les auteurs

8 •

UNIT

1

MYTH OR REALITY?
& Mythes et héros & Espaces et échanges

Tâche finale (p. 29) : There is an exhibition called “American Myths in Cartoons” in your
local museum. You are a cartoonist. Present your work orally.
Activités langagières

Tune in!
(p. 20)

1. Thanksgiving
(p. 21)

2. The land
of marvels
(p. 22-23)

3. Land of milk
and honey?
(p. 24)

Contenus

Prolongements tâches / aides

CE

L’immigration aux États-Unis, des
Pères Pèlerins aux Hispaniques

Commenter un document visuel
(p. 240-241)

CO

Le mur à la frontière
américano-mexicaine

Comprendre un message oral
(p. 238-239)

PPC

Faire un compte rendu oral

Enrichir sa prise de parole (p. 242-243)

CO

Vidéo : Origins of a festival

Fiche vidéo (DVD-Rom et site
compagnon)

PPC

– Tableau de JLG Ferris
– Cartoon
– Compte rendu

– Image vidéoprojetable (DVD-Rom)
– Commenter un document visuel
(p. 240-241)
– Enrichir sa prise de parole (p. 242-243)

POI

Jeu de rôles

Évaluation sommative de POI
(p. 188-189)

CE

Comprendre une chanson

Fiche Workbook

PPC

Présenter oralement le contenu
d’une chanson

Évaluation sommative de PPC
(p. 58-59)

PE

– Rédiger un texte explicatif
– Rédiger un commentaire

Rédiger un texte (p. 234-237)

PPC

Réagir à une photographie

Commenter un document visuel
(p. 240-241)

CE /
PPC

– Faire une recherche Internet
– Rendre compte des informations collectées

Enrichir sa prise de parole (p. 242-243)

PPC

Jeu de rôles : défendre
son point de vue

– Enrichir sa prise de parole (p. 242-243)
– Évaluation sommative de PPC
(p. 58-59)

CO /
PPC

– Comprendre et collecter
des informations
– Rendre compte des
informations

– Comprendre un message oral
(p. 238-239)
– Enrichir sa prise de parole (p. 242-243)

CE /
PPC

– Faire une recherche Internet
– Rendre compte des informations collectées

Enrichir sa prise de parole (p. 242-243)

4. Two icons
(p. 25)

5. Remembering CE
key leaders
(p. 26)
CO

Comprendre et collecter
des informations écrites
Comprendre et corriger
un message oral

Comprendre un message oral
(p. 238-239)

L’activité langagière principale de cette unité est la PPC (prise de parole en continu).

U N IT 1

• 9

UNIT

1

MYTH OR REALITY?

TUNE IN!

MANUEL & P. 20

1. Info search
& Proposition de corrigé :
The first settlers
The Pilgrims, the Pilgrim Fathers: a group of 100 (maybe 101 or 102) Puritans left Plymouth,
England, on September 6, 1620 on board The Mayflower. This was the ship that transported the
Pilgrims from Plymouth, England, to Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts. The ship left Plymouth on
September 6, and dropped anchor near Cape Cod on November 21, 1620 where they founded
the colony of Plymouth, Massachusetts on December 21.
The Puritans were followers of Calvin, they were organized in various congregations (Presbyterian, Separatist, Congregational) and objected to the established Church of England. The
Pilgrim Fathers were religious fundamentalists who wanted to reform the Church and society
and make them much more pure. They believed that they could have direct communication
with God and did not need Church hierarchy. In England Protestant dissenters (Puritans) were
harshly persecuted. As it was impossible to reform a corrupt Church and kingdom, they left
England, went to Holland then sailed for America.
Plymouth Rock
Pilgrim Memorial State Park is one of the most heavily visited State parks in the country. Nearly
one million people a year come from all over the world to visit the town where in 1620 Europeans first made a home in New England and to see Plymouth Rock. This simple glacial erratic
boulder on the shore of Plymouth Harbor has become a world famous symbol of the courage
and faith of the men and women who founded the first New England colony. A landscaped
waterfront park provides scenic views of Plymouth Harbor. The Mayflower II, a replica of the
ship that brought the first Pilgrims to Massachusetts, is anchored at the park.

2. The wall
> Script de l’enregistrement (CD 1, plage 3)
The Mexico–United States barrier is also known in the United States as the border fence or
border wall. The barrier covers one-third of the US’s entire southern frontier with Mexico.
The fence cuts through towns and divides the desert. In parts it is a fence about 5 metres
high, built of a strong steel mesh and painted the same colour as the surrounding earth. In
some places it is topped by barbed wire; in others it is a solid steel wall. Parts of the border
are protected by a “virtual fence” – a network of electronic sensors, cameras, motion detectors and high-flying drones that can see for more than 300 miles. Its length is patrolled by
border patrols, drug enforcement and FBI agents. In Arizona, an armed vigilante militia, the
Minutemen, watch the border. The barrier’s supporters say it is to prevent illegal immigrants
from entering the US, to stop drug traffickers and limit violence related to drugs. Opponents
claim the barriers cost a fortune, are ineffective, jeopardize the health and safety of those
seeking illegal entry into the United States and damage the environment.

10 •

U N IT 1

3. Oral account
& Productions possibles :
The people arriving on the boat are called Pilgrims. They originally came from England but fled
the country after being persecuted for their religious beliefs. They wanted to live somewhere
where they could be free to practice whatever religion they chose. On the trip across the
Atlantic Ocean, one of the leaders, John Winthrop, compared the society they would build to
a city upon a hill. This means that it would be an incredibly moral society, where everyone
would do their duty to make life better. The location where they arrived goes by the name of
Plymouth Rock. This pilgrimage became what is known today as only the second successful
colony in North America and what was until independence the oldest British colony in America
dating back to 1620.
I believe the author’s intent was to make an ironic comparison between the arrival of the
Pilgrims and the present day issue of immigration in the United States. When the Pilgrims arrived, not only did the Indians accept their presence, but they went so far as to help them. If
the Indians had never taught the Pilgrims to farm, they would have all starved to death. They
were willing to go out of their way to help others. In today’s society we have a barbed wire
fence and millions of dollars a year spent to try and keep people out. Most of the immigrants
today come for the same reasons as the Pilgrims namely freedom, peace and a better life.
When the Pilgrims arrived, the Indians made no attempt to form these newcomers or attempt
to make them assimilate into their culture. They simply let them be and flourish in their own
way. That is not the case today.

1. THANKSGIVING

MANUEL & P. 21

1. Watch a video: Origins of a festival
N. B. : la fiche élève, son corrigé, le script et l’exploitation de l’extrait se trouvent dans le
livret du DVD-Rom et sur le site compagnon.

& Productions possibles :
It is a painting by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris in honour of the Native American tribe and the
colonists.
This painting depicts the first religious festival of Thanksgiving. It is a festival that is now celebrated on the last Thursday of November. The Pilgrim Fathers were not familiar with their new
environment and had to face a very harsh winter. The Native Americans helped them survive.
They introduced them to corn, squash, pumpkin, cranberries and sweet potatoes. They also
taught the settlers how to hunt and grow new vegetables.
Thanksgiving was celebrated to thank God for helping them overcome their difficulties. The
Pilgrims were grateful to Native Americans for helping them and celebrated the friendship and
brotherhood between the two communities.
In the painting the Native Americans and the Pilgrims share food. The Pilgrims welcome
the Natives to their colony. They have built thatched-roof houses. The women are wearing
gowns whereas the Native Americans are wearing feathered headdresses and blankets. The

U N IT 1

• 11

UNIT

1

MYTH OR REALITY?
Pilgrims are sitting or standing whereas the Indians are sitting on the ground. The settlers
look sophisticated and superior to the Native Americans. The Native Americans are closer to
Nature. They seem to be more primitive and wild. The atmosphere is relaxed and joyful. The
two communities seem to live in perfect harmony and unity, yet the Indians are depicted as
warlike with their feathered headgear and the man in the background is carrying a rifle, as
if ready to defend himself and the villagers. Likewise, the helmet and the sword of the man
on the right do not seem to be in keeping with the celebration. Thanksgiving symbolizes the
joy of loving, caring and sharing – not war! It epitomizes / symbolizes peace, harmony and
union and people thanking the Lord for all the blessings and material possessions they have.
It is an idealized vision, the truth has been distorted. Indeed, the Pilgrims seem to be the hosts
and the Native Americans are their guests. It was quite the opposite. The Pilgrims relied on
the Natives Americans and would have starved to death without them.

2. Role play
& Productions possibles :
Group A
– If I was the Indian man, I would be angry and confused: “These people have arrived from
the ocean and my people have done all that they can to make them feel at home. We have
saved their lives by teaching them how to hunt game and plant crops and we have kept them
warm by teaching them to make shelters. Yet, at the end of this wonderful meal, they leave
the payments to us. It should be them paying! They seem so ungrateful, as if all we did for
them was expected and worthy of no thanks. I am highly disappointed.”
– “What just happened? Why did I get stuck with the check? Is this fair? First of all, the Pilgrims
came here uninvited. But we helped them out, showed them how to raise crops, how to fish,
what kind of game they could hunt here, helped them survive the first winter, and now what?
Now, I, and the rest of the Native Americans, get stuck with the bill. We’re the ones who will
have to pay for the choices made by the white people who have come over. I thought that
they wanted to be my friends… but maybe not?”
a.

Group B
I believe this cartoon is supposed to symbolize Thanksgiving. The Puritans have shared a meal
with the Indian man, and all the Puritans are standing up and away from the table. The only
one left at the table is a small Indian man with a large check to pay in front of him.

b.

The people are turning their backs to the Indian man that is still at the table. I believe that
this represents how the Pilgrims acted once they were well settled in America. At first, they
were dependent on the Indians and graciously took their help. However, once they were not
immediately needed, the immigrants began to betray them and take advantage of them. Basically, they turned their backs on the Indians.

c.

The empty table symbolizes the fact that the Pilgrims are leaving the Indians to fend for
themselves. Even though they had been able to do this perfectly well prior to the arrival of
the Pilgrims, they will now have to do it with the Pilgrims present. This will turn out to be quite
the task for the Pilgrims will soon become numerous and begin to encroach on their land and
on their lifestyle.
The Indian man is left with nothing but the check. The Puritans are leaving it on him to pay for
the meal. This represents the fact that the Indians will, over time, pay for all of the actions of the

d.

12 •

U N IT 1

newly arrived Pilgrims. While the new European colonies will continue to flourish, it is the Indians
that will pay a dear price. A price that will end up costing them almost their entire population.
e.

The cartoon is a harsh criticism of the Puritans’ contempt and indifference. It clearly underlines
the settlers were ungrateful to the people who had greeted / welcomed them. The cartoonist
hints that the Natives will soon be dispossessed of and driven off their land by the settlers.
They were considered primitive savages who had to be saved or killed. The tone is ironic. The
cartoonist draws up an indictment of colonization. It is a committed drawing.
On pourra aussi organiser un jeu de rôles : Imagine the exchange between the Puritans.

& Productions possibles :
Paul: What a wonderful meal! I’m full. I haven’t eaten so much for ages.
Oliver: Neither have I, it was out of this world!
Mary: Shouldn’t we thank our host? We’re leaving without even saying goodbye, that’s so rude!
Oliver: Don’t worry about the Native, he’s fine.
Mary: But they did their best to welcome us and we aren’t thanking them at all? I don’t want
to be ungrateful or disrespectful. Hold on a minute, I want to thank him, that’s the least we
can do. Don’t you feel any remorse?
Paul: Honestly Mary, stop your nonsense!
Mary: I don’t want to feel ashamed of myself, I’m going to thank him, whatever you say.
Paul: Well, go on then, but I don’t want to have anything to do with him afterwards. We know
how to grow our food now and how to hunt game. We don’t need shelter anymore. We have
no need for him. Let him go back to his uncivilized world!

2. THE LAND OF MARVELS

MANUEL & P. 22-23

1. Find the key information
N. B. : ce texte a été enregistré et est disponible sur le site compagnon.

CORRIGÉ DE LA FICHE DU WORKBOOK (P. 3-4)
1

a) b) The song may be about the American Dream, and how hard you have to work when
you immigrate to America to fulfil your dreams. It might be about the possibilities available to make money and to make this land your new home. The words “treasure” and
“diamonds” remind me of the “Land of Opportunity”, a country where you can hope for
better prospects. Nevertheless, the word “gutters” is also reminiscent of a harsh reality:
you don’t always succeed in making your dreams come true.

2

- There: America - We: the narrator and his wife

3

- Age: “still young” (l. 2) - Family status: in a relationship “my darling” (l. 2) + “my lovely”
(l. 4) - Plans for the future: “we’ll make our home in the American Land” (l. 6-7)

4

It refers to the people who live in America.

U N IT 1

• 13

UNIT

1

MYTH OR REALITY?

5

6

Wealth

Abundance

Luxury

“Gold comes rushing out
the rivers straight into
your hands” (l. 12-13)

“And children dear, the
sweets, I hear, are growing
on the trees” (l. 10-11)

“Over there all the women
wear silk and satin to
their knees” (l. 8-9)

A new Eldorado (paradise)

A land of opportunity

“diamonds in the sidewalk” (l. 16)
“beer flows through the faucets all night
long” (l. 18-19)

“There’s treasure for the taking, for any
hard working man” (l. 20)

7

You need to be “hard working” (l. 20).

8

- “I”: an immigrant - “She”: his darling - “We”: all the immigrants

9

amazement, surprise, fascination. The narrator is fascinated by what he discovers when
he lands at Ellis Island, he gets a glimpse of New York, and of the Statue of Liberty.

10

a) The working class is mentioned here.
b) contemptuous

11

A nation of immigrants
“The McNicholas, the Posalskis,
the Smiths, Zerillis, too” (l. 30)
“The Blacks, the Irish, Italians,
the Germans and the Jews” (l. 31)
“Come across the water a thousand
miles from home” (l. 32)

12

Determination

“with nothin’
in their bellies”
(l. 33)

“the fire down
below” (l. 33)

They = the immigrants

13

Social class
Working class: “worked
to bones and skin” (l. 34)

14

Poverty

Economic sectors
“building the railroads”
(l. 34)
“fields and factories”
(l. 35)

Consequence
“they died” (l. 34 et 36)

a) - They: the immigrants - here: America
b) America has always been a magnet for immigrants who hope to make a living there, to
have better prospects. This American Dream still exists now.

ACTION!
1

People were yearning to live in an open society, where they would become well-off and
could afford expensive materials and clothes. They were dreaming of being treated

14 •

U N IT 1

on an equal footing, hoping that in America, they could overcome the social barriers.
They were longing to climb the rungs of the social ladder overnight and to start from
scratch / to leave their previous lives behind them once on American soil.
2

America was built by destitute people / people who lived in dire straits. They had little
income and were hoping for a higher standard of living and better prospects. They
tried to achieve success in America.
Today, the new generations should pay tribute to the immigrants who came during the
waves of immigration. It is thanks to a working-class labour force that America was
built. In spite of their tough jobs in factories / plants, the immigrants tried to integrate
into a society which praises hard work, but where white collar workers are still in charge.

3

Bruce Springsteen’s vision of America is jingoistic and definitely idealised. Although the
lyrics are stereotyped and biased, his vision is still alive nowadays among immigrants.

Objectif
j f

Immigrants were attracted to a land where job opportunities and better living conditions
seemed to be available to anyone. However, the American Dream became a reality for
very few of them, and many remained poverty-stricken and had to face appalling social
conditions in America. Their dream was seldom fulfilled and they had to accept low wages
and tough jobs to make a living there.

2. Behind the words
& Productions possibles :
a.

– The USA is described as a “nation of immigrants”. The different waves of immigration are
listed. Immigrants from Ireland, Poland, Great Britain, Italy, the Germans and the Jews wanted
to integrate into American society. He also refers to Ellis Island, the immigration center off
Manhattan (l. 22). This island was the first place the immigrants saw, before discovering New
York City.
– The USA is seen as “a land of opportunity”, an open society. People are well-off enough
to buy luxury goods. All the women there can afford expensive clothes. All people are on an
equal footing. There are no social classes. It is an open society, there are no social barriers.
People can become wealthy very quickly, become millionaires overnight. People can climb
the social ladder and start from scratch. Throughout history self-made men made fortunes.
“There’s diamonds in the sidewalk” : there’s opulence (= wealth) in the whole country. It makes
it easier to climb the social ladder. Springsteen insists on a key value, namely the work ethic.
(The Puritans believed that if you worked hard and you succeeded, it meant that it was a sign
from God, a sign of divine election. Success meant you were chosen by God, you belonged
to the Happy Few.) Nowadays hard work means success. The work ethic is a key value in the
USA.
– The USA is depicted as “the Promised Land”, “the land of milk and honey” there for the
taking (lines 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19).

b.

The singer pays tribute to the working class. Cities were built thanks to the workers. The song
pays tribute to the immigrants and to the working class, and doesn’t play tribute to the millionnaires. He praises manual workers, blue collared workers. Blue collars are opposed to the

U N IT 1

• 15

UNIT

1

MYTH OR REALITY?
white collars. This is a typical theme in Bruce Springsteen’s songs. Blue collars died building
the railroads, worked until their deaths. They dedicated their lives / sacrificed their lives to
build the country. It was a very tough job. Immigrants also worked in factories / plants. After
the Depression (the Wall Street crash in 1929) jobs were created because dams, roads, and
other infrastructure was built.

c.

Springsteen refers to the reasons why these people emigrated. They came with nothing,
were poverty-stricken. They lived in dire straits / were destitute. They had guts because they
knew that they were going to struggle. They wanted better living conditions, a better income,
a higher standard of living, better prospects for their children.

> Mise en œuvre :
– On pourra demander aux élèves de conclure en donnant leur opinion sur cette chanson
et sur la vision de Springsteen : This song is very jingoistic because his vision is completely
idealised, stereotyped / biased. I think that Bruce Springsteen really believes in his country,
he believes the American Dream is still alive.
– L’image p. 22 pourra donner lieu à une prise de parole en continu et être utilisée en évaluation (formative) après l’étude de la chanson. Les élèves seront ainsi amenés à réutiliser le
vocabulaire et les structures étudiées en cours.
– Dans le cadre d’une classe fragile, des questions relais pourront aider les élèves à structurer leur prise de parole en continu : Observe the picture and imagine who this young man
is (age, country of origin, reasons for leaving his native country, dreams).
– On trouvera une grille d’évaluation sommative de PPC officielle à l’adresse :
www.cache.media.education.gouv.fr/file/43/17/1/fiches_evaluation_200171.pdf

3. Green Card
& Productions possibles :
I am so happy to have received my Green Card. America means so much to me and offers
so much to her people: the freedom of religion, the freedom of expression, the freedom of
assembly, and so much more. When I hear mention of America, I think of the freedom her
people have and I long to have that same freedom. A land of immigrants, the United States
has welcomed people from all over the world and has given them new opportunities. I want
to be one of those immigrants.
While I know that the streets are not paved with gold as some stories would have us believe,
still, America does grant the freedom necessary for men and women to work hard in order
to improve their lives. Americans can live in peace with their neighbours and express their
beliefs openly without offending them. In many countries in the world, individuals do not have
this freedom. They are restricted to saying what is politically correct, and women in particular
often do not have rights equal to a man’s rights.
I am so happy to be given the opportunity to live in a country where men and women have
the same rights, where I can disagree with my neighbours about politics and religion and still
call them friends, where I can protest openly without repercussions. I will work hard to be a
contributing member of the American society and I will do my best to make the lives of my
neighbours better because of my presence in their city.

16 •

U N IT 1

4. An alien
& Productions possibles :
a.

The Arizona State law that was passed in April of 2010 was a law on the subject of immigration. It stated that any person suspected of being an illegal immigrant may be arrested and
detained for further questioning.

b.

The cartoon
Joe Heller’s comic titled, “I can tell by the color of your skin that you’re not from around here,
are you?” shows the Statue of Liberty driving a red convertible in the desert in the foreground
of the cartoon. The sun shines brightly in the arid and brown desert behind the car in the
background. Next to the driver’s door, a police officer with “Arizona” written on his uniform,
glares at the Statue of Liberty from behind his sunglasses, his hand resting on his holstered
gun. He demands, “I can tell by the color of your skin that you’re not from around here, are
you?” and we imagine that he has pulled her over simply because she is green-skinned and
not Caucasian as he is. The cartoon criticizes racism and racial profiling as it addresses the
subject of illegal immigration, which is rampant in States like California and Arizona. It is humorous because the border patrol officer does not recognize Lady Liberty in the car.
It may strike readers as funny, but it has a serious side as well. The officer seems to have
forgotten or not to know the words of Emma Lazarus’s poem on the pedestal of the Statue
of Liberty in New York harbour:
“Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”
Racism and illegal immigration are problems that especially plague the Southwestern United
States. Increasing numbers of illegal immigrants succeed in crossing the border between
Mexico and the United States, circumventing the lawful means of entering the United States.
Many do so because they are desperate to feed their families and are willing to take low-paying
jobs that Americans deride.
Does America still believe in the words of Emma Lazarus’s poem? Today Latinos face racism
from those who resent the financial burden that illegal immigrants from Mexico pose to American society. Racism is never acceptable, but policy makers must acknowledge the problem
of illegal immigration and find a way to solve it. Certainly they could make it easier to legally
immigrate to the US. Sadly, some people wait as long as 10 years to go through the process
legally. Why not make it easier to enter the country legally, and thus perhaps stem the tide of
those who try to cross the desert in the dead of night?
Comment on the newspaper’s website
I am writing a letter based on the cartoon that I saw recently in your newspaper. It was dealing
with the immigration laws that have just been passed in Arizona. The cartoon shows the Statue
of Liberty being pulled over on the highway and questioned. She is being considered an illegal
immigrant because her skin is green. The irony is that she represents the United States and
couldn’t be more American if she tried. I believe that this law is outright absurd. From what
I understand, the police now have the right to arrest anyone suspicious of being an illegal
immigrant. What is a person suspected of being an illegal immigrant? I’ll tell you exactly what
this law is, it is racism. Of course the majority of illegal immigrants come from Mexico. Any

U N IT 1

• 17

UNIT

1

MYTH OR REALITY?
Hispanic living in Arizona may be stopped and questioned. It will be based on the colour of
their skin. They will be stopped because they are not of European descent. These people are
coming to America for one reason, a better life. In their home towns in Mexico, they live in
appalling conditions. Many of them are jobless and most are poverty-stricken. The United
States gives them prospects for a better life and that is why they come.

3. LAND OF MILK AND HONEY?

MANUEL & P. 24

1. The Louisville Flood
> Mise en œuvre :
L’étude du document sera menée avant la scénarisation. Le role play pourra être utilisé
comme vérification des acquis du cours précédent.

& Productions possibles :
a.

The picture is based on a contrast between the foreground and the background. In the foreground people are queuing up. We can’t help noticing they are all African-Americans. They
are carrying bags, they look resigned, they are waiting patiently to be given some food after
the flood. They may have lost everything, may be destitute / in need. They may have fallen
below the poverty line. They must rely on charities to survive.
They are standing in front of a billboard that promotes the American way of life. The family
represented in the poster is white, all the family members are beaming / look radiant, and affluent. They are well-dressed and have a car, which at the time was a luxury and was reserved
for privileged middle-class people. They live in a consumer society. They lead a comfortable
life, have a high standard of living, enjoy life, they can even afford a pet, whereas the others
barely have enough to survive / can hardly make ends meet. They embody a typical WASP
family.
There is a sharp contrast between the two groups, the haves and the have-nots / the poor
and the weak. We can’t help thinking the slogan on the poster is ironic.

b.

The photo clearly underlines the contrast between the ideals of the nation as they are stated
in the Declaration of Independence and the grim reality. The photo underlines that some
people are left out, are excluded from the system. In reality, all citizens are not equal, some
are “more equal than others”.
People have been left out on the fringe, they have been pushed down into poverty. The havenots, people who are economically deprived / destitute, are invisible to the middle-class who
lives in the suburbs.
The photographer may want to make Americans aware of poverty in their own country. The
photographer’s goal is to make people realize that some people in the USA are confronted
with / faced with an acute problem, with a social and economic problem. Poverty can exist
in an affluent / rich society with a high standard of living.

18 •

U N IT 1

2. Remembrance of things past
& Productions possibles :
Journalist: Ms. Bourke-White, can you give me some insight into what you were thinking when
you took the photograph called “The Louisville Flood”?
Ms. Bourke-White: Well yes, I’d be delighted to tell you what I was thinking. It was 1937,
and the country was still reeling from the effects of the Great Depression. I thought that the
contrast between the people queued up / lined up outside the Office of Emergency Relief
who were living below the poverty line and the obviously affluent family in the poster above
their heads was remarkable.
Already on the fringe of society, after the terrible flood in Louisville when the Ohio River
overflowed her bounds, the people in the photograph plunged into poverty. They resigned
themselves to collecting welfare because they were so needy and destitute. Excluded from
the upper tiers of society, these poor were left out of the world of economic prosperity and
instead depended on the government to provide them with food. They were certainly the
have-nots, in what was, at the time, mostly a two-tiered society divided between the haves
and the have-nots. The Great Depression left much of the country terribly poor, and minorities
especially suffered because their standard of living was already far from wealthy.
The family in the car embodies the “ideal” American family: one who is radiant thanks to their
definite material success. The contrast between this white family, beaming in their brand
new car, and the gloomy, even outcast African-American men and women patiently waiting to
receive some help from the government, debunks the myth that everyone in the United States
enjoys a high standard of living. There are those for whom a status symbol like the new
car in the photograph remains only a dream, unless they can find a way out of their poverty.

4. TWO ICONS

MANUEL & P. 25

1. Info search
> Script de l’enregistrement (CD 1, plage 6)
Journalist: What is the history and meaning behind the American Seal?
Historian: The Great Seal was first used publicly in 1782. The front side of the American
Seal is the coat of arms of the United States. It is used by the government in numerous
ways. It can be seen on postage stamps, flags, the reverse of the one-dollar bill, publications,
passports, military uniforms, public buildings and public monuments.
Journalist: What do the different elements symbolize?
Historian: The American Bald Eagle is the most prominent feature of the Seal of the United
States. It is the national bird and symbol of the United States of America. The eagle has its
wings outstretched and carries a shield. At first, the American Seal was meant to express
the beliefs and principles of the Founding Fathers and the young and rising nation. The red
and white stripes of the shield symbolize the unity of the States. White symbolizes innocence
and purity, red symbolizes resilience and bravery, and blue represents justice, vigilance and
persistence.

U N IT 1

• 19

UNIT

1

MYTH OR REALITY?
Journalist: What about the arrows and the olive branch?
Historian: The eagle holds a bundle of 13 arrows in its left talon, the 13 arrows refer to the
13 original States. The arrows also represent war. We can also notice an olive branch in its
right talon. The olive branch means that the United States of America has a strong desire
for peace, but will always be ready for war, if it is attacked. The eagle has its head turned
towards the olive branch, which is said to symbolize a preference for peace. The olive branch
is usually drawn with 13 leaves and 13 olives, again representing the 13 original States. In
its beak, the eagle grasps a ribbon with the motto E pluribus unum (“Out of Many, One”). It
reminds us that out of many States was born one new nation.
Journalist: Very interesting indeed. Thank you for your all these explanations.

& Productions possibles :
a.

Group A
The American Bald Eagle: across the breast of the eagle is a shield with 13 alternating red
and white stripes. Across the top of the shield is a blue field (chief) that unites all the stripes
into one. In his talons the eagle grasps an olive branch with 13 leaves, 13 olives, and 13 arrows. Above the eagle are thirteen stars inside a circular design. In his beak the eagle grasps
a flowing ribbon. On the ribbon we can see the motto of the United States: E Pluribus Unum.

Group B
a.b. In this cartoon, we find many different characters. The one that stands out the most, is Uncle
Sam. Uncle Sam is a character that was created to represent the United States of America.
In the character’s most basic usage, Uncle Sam is a symbol of the pride and power of the
United States. However, in this cartoon he represents quite the opposite. Uncle Sam is bent
over and looks old and weak. The other characters in the cartoon can all be assumed to be
immigrants. In the cartoon, it seems that they are taking care of Uncle Sam. They are doing
such things as sewing, cleaning, shoe shining, brushing and cleaning his hair.
The cartoonist’s intentions are quite clear. In the last few decades, immigrants, particularly
from Mexico, legal and illegal, have been streaming into the United States by the millions.
Due to the fact that many are uneducated or have to keep their presence a secret, they take
up many of the low-paying and what many would consider, menial jobs. However, due to the
fact that these immigrants are willing to do jobs that others won’t, it is beginning to have a
substantial impact. This is where the cartoon itself comes in. The cartoonist is attempting to
portray the state of the United States in today’s society. Uncle Sam’s image is changing and
his power is declining. It is the work of these immigrants that is keeping the country afloat.
Uncle Sam’s facial expression shows just this. He is shocked to see the worker coming out
of his hat. Perhaps this is to signify that he was not aware of the importance that these immigrants hold in the country’s well-being.
I find the cartoon more pathetic than funny, because it holds quite a bit of truth. There are
many stereotypes and harsh feelings towards these immigrants. They are treated as people
who have no rights and have no intelligence. The general population is blind to the work that
they do. Even though many of the jobs they do are small and seem to have no importance,
they are most necessary.

20 •

U N IT 1

2. Test your classmates
Travail personnel des élèves.

5. REMEMBERING
KEY LEADERS

MANUEL & P. 26

Info search
> Mise en œuvre :
Les élèves feront au préalable des recherches sur Internet et mémoriseront les informations
essentielles. Lorsqu’ils écouteront l’enregistrement, ils devront repérer les erreurs (barrées
dans le script ci-dessous, les bonnes réponses sont en gras).

> Script de l’enregistrement (CD 1, plage 8)
This is a WWII ad for war bonds. What are war bonds? The US government borrowed money
from people and promised to pay them back. War bonds are issued for the purpose of financing military operations during times of war. War bonds generate capital for the government
and make civilians feel involved in the war.
In this ad we immediately notice Mount Rushmore National Memorial. It is located in the
Black Hills of South Carolina Dakota. The Memorial is a colossal sculpture carved into
granite. Sculpted by Danish-American Gutzon Borglum and his son, Lincoln Borglum, Mount
Rushmore features 60-foot (18 meters) sculptures of the heads of former United States
presidents (in order from right to left left to right): George Washington, Thomas Jefferson,
Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln. The sculptures represent the first 100 130 years
of the history of the United States. Over the decades, Mount Rushmore has grown in fame
as a symbol of America, a symbol of freedom and hope.
The ad also features the first lines of “My Country, ’Tis of Thee”, a popular American song.
The bell is also symbolic. It reminds us of Liberty Bell in Pittsburg Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is an iconic symbol of American Independence in 1776. The bell is said to have
rung on the 14th 4th of July 1776. The bells are also the bells of freedom. As Allied soldiers
entered towns, chasing enemy soldiers out, the people in the town would ring the church
bells. The bells celebrated the joy of freedom from oppression. It meant that people’s lives
were restored to normal.
The small text under the black and white photograph lists the basic freedoms Americans are
deeply attached to. Participating in the war effort means fighting for the nation, defending
its main values.

U N IT 1

• 21

UNIT

1

MYTH OR REALITY?

LANGUAGE AT WORK

MANUEL & P. 27

1

1 a – 2 a – 3 a – 4 a – 5 an – 6 a – 7 Ø – 8 a – 9 Ø – 10 a

2

a. 1 the – 2 Ø – 3 the – 4 the – 5 the – 6 the – 7 Ø – 8 Ø– 9 the – 10 Ø – 11 Ø –
12 Ø – 13 the – 14 the – 15 Ø – 16 Ø – 17 the – 18 the – 19 Ø
b. 1 the – 2 Ø – 3 Ø – 4 Ø – 5 Ø – 6 Ø – 7 the – 8 the – 9 the
c. 1 Ø – 2 the – 3 Ø – 4 Ø – 5 Ø – 6 the – 7 Ø – 8 Ø
d. 1 Ø – 2 a – 3 the – 4 the – 5 Ø – 6 a
Remarque : en fait il ne faudrait pas de numéro 7 devant protestant.

3

Facts and figures

1856-1915
From Virginia
African- American
Born a slave from white
father
Walked to university
(386 miles)
Became teacher
Came back to home
town to open school

Facts and figures

Facts and figures

1926-1962
From California
20th century icon
(glamour, tragedy of
fate...)
Bleached blond hair
Award winning
actress = successful
Hard life, depressed
Died (overdose)

1809-1865
From Kentucky
School: one year
Self-taught
Lawyer
President: 1860
1863: emancipation
proclamation (end of
slavery)
1864: re-election
Assassinated

IMPROVE
YOUR SPEAKING SKILLS

MANUEL & P. 27

> Script de l’enregistrement (MP3 n°1)
Child: I don’t get that. What does this mean? Who landed in 1620?
Mother: The Pilgrim Fathers landed on Cape Cod, they were on board The Mayflower, don’t
you remember?
Child: Of course I do. But it says “undocumented aliens”, that’s weird!
Father: True, that’s surprising!
Mother: Yes, that’s quite unusual.
Child: What exactly does this mean then?

22 •

U N IT 1

Father: Well, it suggests the Founding Fathers settled in America without asking Native
Americans their permission.
Mother: Em, it implies the pioneers wanted to flee their native countries and thought of
America as a possible refuge. If Native Americans hadn’t helped them survive, this country
would not exist today.
Child: I don’t get the point though.
Father: It draws a parallel between today’s illegal immigrants and the first pioneers.
Mother: Absolutely. Your father is right. The cartoonist alludes to what is going on today.
The first pioneers were immigrants themselves.
Father: It also points out that they were considered invaders. There’s no doubt the cartoonist
is biased and wants us to remember the USA is a nation of immigrants, as Kennedy said.
The country was built by foreigners.
Child: I see what you mean.
Mother: I also have the feeling that the cartoonist refers to the debate about today’s illegal
immigrants. I can’t help thinking that he objects to some people’s anti-foreign reactions.
He certainly wants to denounce tough measures taken against illegal aliens.
Father: Quite right. I’m convinced he wants to stress that America should be true to its
ideals. Got the message now?
Child: I think so.

& Proposition de corrigé
2

The Pilgrim Fathers landed and settled without asking Native Americans their permission,
they could therefore be considered “undocumented aliens”, they were the first immigrants.
If they hadn’t been welcomed by the Natives, the US would not exist. The cartoonist objects
to the way illegal immigrants are treated nowadays, all the more because the US is a nation
of immigrants.

3

– to give one’s impressions
I also have the feeling that...
I can’t help thinking that...
– to explain what one has understood
It suggests...
It implies...
It also points out...
– when one hesitates
Well, ...
Em...
– to give one’s opinion
True, that’s surprising!
Yes, that’s quite unusual.
That’s weird!
– to explain one’s point of view (for or against).
I’m convinced...
There’s no doubt...

Remarque : on pourra
aussi ajouter les deux
rubriques suivantes.
– to show you don’t
understand something
I don’t get that. What does
this mean?
What exactly does this
mean then?
I don’t get the point
though.
– to show you are
following the conversation and interested in it
I see what you mean.
Quite right
Absolutely.

U N IT 1

• 23

UNIT

1
4

MYTH OR REALITY?

– beginning
– comment on
– develop • development
– government
– analyse • analysis
– economy • economic
– event

– policy
– political
– politician
– country
– crisis
– a political crisis
– an economic crisis

YOUR TASK

– contrast
– detail
– symbol • it symbolizes
– criticize • it criticizes
– it’s a criticism of
– it represents
– interesting

MANUEL & P. 29

> Script de l’enregistrement (MP3 n°3)
My cartoon depicts Uncle Sam on a front lawn crushed by a “House For Sale: Price Reduced”
real estate sign. It illustrates the effect the collapse of the housing market has had on the
United States. It was first published in the Indianapolis Star in June of 2011. The cartoon
shows Uncle Sam in his classic and very recognizable top hat (which always reminds me of
Abraham Lincoln), and his suit made of the US flag colors. He is flattened and lying motionless under the real estate sign. I use Uncle Sam here to represent not only the American
government, but also the whole of the United States and its economy. Let me explain why.
In the late 1990s and early 2000s the housing market was very strong, as house values rose
and the economy seemed to be doing fairly well. However, beginning in 2006, the housing market began to decline. In this cartoon I tried to convey the way many Americans felt
when the housing bubble collapsed. We felt like we’d had the wind knocked out of us. We
were overwhelmed by the economic downturn in not just the housing market, but also the
US economy in general.
My cartoon conveys the idea that Americans felt crushed because their savings vanished
and their homes’ values plummeted. It’s clear that Uncle Sam has been knocked out and
it’s going to take him some time to recover. However I don’t depict him dead and ready to
be buried. Even if I use the cartoon to portray the heavy blow the US economy has suffered,
I’m sure that eventually Sam and the US economy will soon be on their feet once more.

> Mise en œuvre :
– Le professeur pourra aussi utiliser pour cette tâche les images vidéoprojetables n° 3
(Empire in Decline) et 4 (The Golden Door), disponibles sur le DVD-Rom.
– Dans le cadre d’une classe fragile, les élèves pourront utiliser les aide lexicales qui y sont
fournies.

24 •

U N IT 1

SPEAKING CORNER

MANUEL & P. 30-31

N. B. : le texte Stand a été enregistré et est disponible sur le site compagnon.

& Proposition de corrigé
A.

In this drawing we see a boat filled with immigrants, arriving at Ellis Island. Ellis Island is the
sea port in New York City. This is traditionally where immigrants from Europe and other parts
of the world would arrive, when they came to the United States. In the distance, we can see
the Statue of Liberty. This statue was given as a gift, by the French people. The statue is of a
robed female figure holding a flame. She represents Libertas, the Roman goddess of freedom.
This statue has become an icon of the American people and the United States themselves.
On the boat, we can see many different immigrants. The looks on their faces reveal
clearly their emotions. The main emotion these immigrants feel is hope. The fact that
they are on this boat shows that life in their country of origin was tough. That throughout their lives they had passed extremely difficult periods and are looking for a better
and more meaningful life. Perhaps they left due to poverty, religious persecution or even
famine. In any case, the United States represents for them a chance at a new beginning. The United States is known for its equal opportunity given to all. People are free to
work as much as they please, speak their opinions and practice their religion of choice.
After a long and gruelling voyage, arriving at this port and seeing Liberty Island must have been
an ecstatic experience. In today’s day and age, the opinion on immigration has drastically
changed. Though the United States still welcomes over one million immigrants per year, a
striking number are now turned away. The United States must not forget that they are a country
based almost entirely on immigrants. All nationalities have a place under the American flag.

B.

The narrator of the poem “Stand” encourages the American attitude of individuality. “Stay
black / Stay Proud” the first stanza begins, and it continues to exhort individuals of every
colour to be proud of their race. Since one’s race is a part of one’s identity, the speaker in
the poem seemingly believes that people should not be ashamed of their ethnicity.
The second stanza states that it is impossible to be anyone but oneself. Meanwhile, the following stanza tells the reader that no matter his occupation, he should “be the best [he] can
be.” The poem uses the word “proud” eight times as an exhortation; it tells the reader that he
ought to be proud of his individuality and stand up for himself. Accordingly, the sixth stanza
says, “Be real and realize that the ones who criticize, / best recognize that you are you— /
take it or leave it.” Here, the narrator urges the reader to understand that those who criticize
him are perhaps those who best understand his uniqueness and value.
Americans embrace the narrator’s idea of individuality. Often, they are not worried about
blending into the crowd. This is often because it is cool to be different from everyone else.
Americans realize, along with the speaker in the poem, that it’s impossible to be someone
else, as stanza seven expresses, but that they do best when they each live their own life,
proud to be unique and different from everyone else.
Asserting one’s personality whatever the obstacles is the hallmark of ordinary heroes. It
requires courage, strength, will-power, determination, energy and optimism.

C.

Helmut Leherb’s mural entitled America seems to be a collage of many of the things that he
thinks symbolize America. The image includes a diverse collection of symbols. The left size
of the mural is largely covered by blue skyscrapers and clouds, but at the bottom of the left

U N IT 1

• 25

UNIT

1

MYTH OR REALITY?
side is a rubbish heap that includes discarded soda pop cans, an abandoned helmet, an old
coat and pair of shoes, a gun and an old map. A large red Coca-Cola bottle separates the
two halves of the mural. On the right side is a couple, both clothed in blue, the man holding a
guitar that has the front of a TV screen with the face of Marilyn Monroe on it, and on the far
right side are signs with the words “naked but nice,” “entrance,” “here now” and “am” on
them.
There are many things that are interesting about this mural, but one of the most striking
choices Leherb made was to paint much of the mural light blue. At least half of the mural
is a picture of the blue sky complete with skyscrapers and clouds. Since clouds are often
symbols of dreams, it’s as if he both suggests that America is a land where dreams come
true and that the sky is the limit in the United States. On the right, the couple presses their
cheeks together and seems to be in love, and since they are of mixed ethnicities, it suggests
that the America Leherb sees is forward-looking and not racist. The bottle of Coke is striking,
first because it is red, but also because it is in the center of the mural. Coke has become an
international symbol of America and it seems as if Leherb pays tribute to that in his painting
by acknowledging the brand here.
Remarque : on pourra utiliser la grille d’évaluation proposée dans le bulletin officiel du
ministère.
www.cache.media.education.gouv.fr/file/43/17/1/fiches_evaluation_200171.pdf
www.education.gouv.fr/pid25535/bulletin_officiel.html?cid_bo=58313

PROLONGEMENTS POSSIBLES À L’UNITÉ
> Évaluation sommative de PPC (p. 372-373 de ce Fichier)
> Image vidéoprojetable : The First Thanksgiving (DVD-Rom)

26 •

U N IT 1

UNIT

2

THE SWINGING SIXTIES
& Mythes et héros & L'idée de progrès

Tâche finale (p. 43) : You take part in a radio programme entitled “Celebrating the
Sixties”. Some songs and films have been selected. Choose one, present it and
say to what extent it is representative of the decade.
Activités
langagières
Tune in !
(p. 32)

1. The times
are changing
(p. 33)

2. Let
music rule
(p. 34)

3. The power
of music
(p. 35)

4. Years
of protest
(p. 36)

5. Years
of fashion
(p. 37)

6. Still a
man’s world?
(p. 38-39)

Contenus

Prolongements tâches / aides

PPC

– Étudier une couverture de Time
– Repérer des éléments
caractéristiques des années 60

– Commenter un document visuel
(p. 240-241)
– Évaluation sommative de PPC (p. 58-59)

CE

Comprendre un article

Build up your vocabulary (p. 41)

CO
PPC

Comprendre une interview

Fiche sur le site compagnon

CE
POI

– Comprendre un court article
– Débattre sur l’importance
de la télé aujourd’hui

Enrichir sa prise de parole (p. 242-243)

CE

Comprendre un article

Fiche Workbook

CO

Regarder une bande annonce
(sur Internet)

POI

Confronter des opinions

Enrichir sa prise de parole (p. 242-243)

CO

Comprendre une interview

Fiche sur le site compagnon

PE

Écrire un résumé

Rédiger un texte (p. 234-237)

CE

Web search : la musique des 60s

PPC

Réaliser un diaporama et le
présenter

CE

Comprendre un article

PPC

Faire le lien entre une image
et un texte

– Enrichir sa prise de parole (p. 242-243)
– Évaluation sommative de PPC (p. 58-59)

CE

Comprendre les paroles
d’une chanson

Fiche Workbook

PPC

Enregistrer un podcast

Évaluation sommative de PPC (p. 58-59)

PPC

Décrire une publicité

CO

Vidéo : Mary Quant

Fiche vidéo (DVD-Rom et site compagnon)

CO

Comprendre un document audio

Fiche sur le site compagnon

POI

Confronter ses opinions

Enrichir sa prise de parole (p. 242-243)

PE

Écrire une critique de film

Rédiger un texte (p. 234-237)

CE

– Comprendre un script
– Comprendre un article

Fiche Workbook

PPC

Jeu de rôles : faire un discours

Évaluation sommative de PPC (p. 58-59)

PE

Écrire un article

L’activité langagière principale de cette unité est la PPC (prise de parole en continu).

U N IT 2

• 27

UNIT

2

THE SWINGING SIXTIES

TUNE IN!

MANUEL & P. 32

Sweet Sixties
> Mise en œuvre :
– Cette couverture de Time Magazine, qui a valu à Londres son surnom de Swinging City et
à la décennie celui de Swinging Sixties, permettra aux élèves de repérer un certain nombre
d’éléments saillants de la culture des années soixante. On pourra diviser la classe en deux et
demander par exemple à une partie des élèves de décrire la partie gauche de la couverture,
pendant que l’autre moitié travaillera sur l’autre partie. On pourra ainsi opposer une partie
plus ordonnée, traditionnelle à une autre plus moderne, en plein mouvement.
– Une autre possibilité sera de faire travailler une partie de la classe sur la couverture de
Time, pendant que l’autre partie travaillera sur le texte et la photo page 33. À l’issue de ce
travail, chaque groupe donnera sa définition des années soixante lors de la mise en commun.

& Productions possibles :
a.

b.

London seems to have been the epicentre of many changes in the Sixties and we can recognize several references to the city on this cover of Time Magazine released on 5th April 1966:
on the one hand we can see the Houses of Parliament, the Union Jack, horse guards with
their bear-skin hats, a man on the right under the one-way sign in the background who looks
like the Prime Minister of the time, Harold Wilson, smoking his pipe. This could be called the
“traditional” London. The page is divided into two parts diagonally. While the right hand-side
reflects the more traditional aspects of society, the left-hand side illustrates the rapid changes
that were happening around that time, for example the breaking of taboos concerning sex – we
can see girls going out freely with young men and having a lot of fun. All the traditional aspects
of society seem to have been relegated to the background as if to leave room for change,
fun, movement and music in the foreground (we can see the name of a famous group of the
time (The Who) written on the man’s T-shirt). The Sixties was a decade ruled by the younger
generation who enjoyed their newly found freedom by partying hard and experimenting with
wild clothes. They sported flares, oversized sunglasses and bold prints which can be seen
throughout this cover. The liberal attitude of the time also meant that many indulged in the
use of illegal substances which is represented by the spiralling eyes of the party girl on the
left and the dazed expression of the man in the foreground.
The cover contains all the elements leading to the birth of the cultural myth of Swinging London.
The “Swinging Sixties” is the label used to refer to the decade in which London was at the
centre of the cultural universe. This is portrayed by the elements used on the cover of Time
Magazine. The collage effect that is used creates a buzz as it forces the viewer’s attention to
flicker from the left-hand side of the image to the other.

28 •

U N IT 2

1. THE TIMES ARE CHANGING

MANUEL & P. 33

1. Understanding the article
& Productions possibles :
a.

b.

This period was characterized by a technological revolution, fashion, consumerism, babyboomers, drugs, hippy anti-establishmentarianism, a sexual revolution because women could
be on the pill, and the emergence of brands.
“kicked the consumer society into gear, spending like lottery winners and trying everything on
offer – lots of it illegal.” (l. 14-17) + “Drugs, hippy anti-establishmentarianism and the sexual
revolution – fuelled by the uptake of the pill…” (l. 22-23)

2. Memories of the Sixties
> Mise en œuvre :
Pour les classes les plus faibles, une fiche d’exploitation et son corrigé sont disponibles sur
le site compagnon.

& Productions possibles :
The Sixties are depicted as a new era, a golden age when radical changes happened in Great
Britain. A radical cultural revolution took place and the access to technological breakthroughs
such as television or cars enabled people to improve their quality of life as they were better
off. This decade also witnessed new social and political trends and the triumph of pop music
with the emergence of what would become world-famous bands. Today, people still recall with
a nostalgic pleasure how optimistic this decade was when considering all the changes that
happened.

> Script de l’enregistrement (CD 1, plage 9)
Journalist: Pete, can you tell me what the 60s represent for you?
Pete: The 60s to me were vibrant, exciting, original and fresh with all kinds of new ideas
in lifestyle, culture, popular music, sexual freedom, film, television and politics. It was the
time for radical thinking, big changes in the way the world was run, a whole new approach,
to society’s way of doing things. The 60s decade witnessed the advent of “super models”
like Twiggy and great photographers like David Bailey who photographed them.
Journalist: Is that what you will remember most?
Pete: Oh, no. I remember the fashions, the mini skirt, amazing! It was a great time for technology. I remember my first colour TV. Then came transistor radios… wow! So small and
battery driven. Amazing times… I have a lot of very good memories of the music and just
the good feeling that life was improving for all of us.
Journalist: What about you Mike?
Mike: Oh I completely agree with all that. It was a fabulous time. As for television, well, it
was revolutionized in the 60s. At the beginning of the decade, we watched programs like
Dr. Who on the old black and white sets, but by the late 60s, we had colour TV—mainly for

U N IT 2

• 29

UNIT

2

THE SWINGING SIXTIES
sports programmes at first. That was in about 1968. At that time, we always rented our TVs…
they were too expensive to buy. However, we DID have our own car. The 60s was the decade
in which “ordinary families” could afford to buy cars. My parents passed their driving tests
in 1965 and I have a photo of them proudly standing next to their first car—an Austin mini.
Journalist: Cathy, you were born in 1951, you told me. Do you remember anything special
about the decade?
Cathy: Oh, yes! I clearly remember reading papers like The Mirror. They were so optimistic,
literally crammed with pictures of things like the brand new Concorde, the Post Office Tower,
the Mini, the hovercraft, things that left their mark in the 60s. And, of course, England 66.
It was the first—and only—victory of England in the World Cup. They’ve never won it since!
There was a real sense of “Look what we’ve achieved in the 1960s!”
Journalist: You sound so enthusiastic when talking about the Sixties in London, that’s just
incredible.
Cathy: It was just amazing! I think Britain was really the place to be in the 60s! It was the
world leader in fashion, pop music, films, television, social culture. This country had it all and
produced it all, including world class pop groups like The Beatles and The Rolling Stones…
In short, Great Britain, and especially London, was the cultural hub of the world! It was also
a time when people also “experimented” with a lot of things.

3. The “Big Step”
& Productions possibles :
a.

Réponse personnelle.

b.

On the one hand, we believe that television still has the same importance in today’s society
as it did back in the Sixties. Daily news broadcasts help to keep the nation up to date with
current events happening around the globe which is a vital source of information, especially
when major events happen such as the 9/11 attacks and various natural disasters. Television
remains the most effective way of passing on information rapidly to a wide audience.
On the other hand, in recent years, television has been “dumbed-down” with less emphasis
on educational programmes and more broadcasting hours being dedicated to reality TV shows
and soap operas. It could be argued that television is no longer a respected medium as it once
was in the Sixties.

2. LET MUSIC RULE

MANUEL & P. 34

> Mise en œuvre :
On pourra diviser la classe en deux. Une moitié travaillera sur le texte, pendant que l’autre
travaillera sur la bande annonce de The Boat that Rocked (Good Morning England). Ceci peut
permettre de travailler des activités langagières différentes en fonction des besoins des
élèves.

30 •

U N IT 2

1. Understanding the article
& Productions possibles :
a.

Réponse personnelle.

b.

Pirate radios were very attractive in the 60s because they played the popular rock ’n’ roll
music that was blaring from American radios. At the time, all the radio and TV stations in
Britain, except for one television network, were owned by the BBC. This national broadcasting company aired a variety of programs including news and light entertainment, but no more
than 6 hours of pop music a week. Pirate radios filled this gap, supplying a steady stream of
pop, including songs by many very popular British bands, like The Rolling Stones, which were
being played on American Top 40 stations, but not on the BBC.

CORRIGÉ DE LA FICHE DU WORKBOOK (P. 5-6)
1

1 a) airwaves b) broadcast c) commercial d) broadcaster

2

Radio
news = les informations
programs = émissions
signal = signal
station = station

Music
disc jockeys = disque-jockeys
tunes = airs
bands = groupes
playlist = liste de lecture / sélection

3

It stands for the British Broadcasting Corporation.

4

a) were the property of / were controlled by
b) at the beginning: at the dawn • tasteless and boring: bland • forbidden: banished

5

all but

6

Monopoly
The BBC owned
the airwaves.

Programmes
“a bland if nourishing diet of news,
information, light entertainments
and children’s programs” (l. 4-5)

What was not
broadcast
rock ’n’ roll music

7

a) “rebellious” (l. 8) • “illicit” (l. 12) • “out of British authorities’ legal reach” (l. 15) • “pirates”
(l. 19) • “a crime” (l. 25) • “unlicensed” (l. 26)
b) simplement: merely • ancrés au large de: anchored off • hors de portée: out of reach
• époque: era

8

a) “The pirate’s off-coast locations strategically put them in international waters – and thus
out of British authorities’ legal reach”
b) The broadcasters were based on ships anchored in waters that were not dominated by
Great Britain. Thus, the authorities could not forbid them to broadcast unlicensed music.

U N IT 2

• 31

UNIT

2
9

THE SWINGING SIXTIES

a) Mi Amigo b) Radio Caroline c) The Hollies, The Rolling Stones, The Dave Clark Five

10

BBC radio
- news
- information
- light entertainment
- children’s programs

Pirate radios
- the biggest bands of the period
- commercials
- playlists largely lifted from American
Top 40 stations

11

The government voted a law against them. “In 1967 the British government made it a crime
to supply music, commentary, fuel, food and water – and, most significantly, advertising
– to any unlicensed offshore broadcaster.” (l. 25-27)

12

The pirate radios can be regarded as the “winner” because, in the end, a pop station was
created by the BBC and many disc-jockeys who worked for pirate stations ended up working for the BBC. A few years later, commercial radio stations were legalized in the United
Kingdom.

ACTION!

Objectif
j f

1

They were called “pirate radios” because they were the only means to fight against the
domination of the British Broadcasting Corporation. They were formed by activists who
bypassed the law to broadcast American music.

2

They contributed widely to the music revolution of the 60s because they enabled British
people to discover rock ’n’ roll music which was flourishing in America, but which was
banned in the United Kingdom.
The DJs can be considered heroes since they were brave and daring enough to challenge
the restrictions imposed by the BBC. They stood up against / defied its monopoly and
got around the law to broadcast a new kind of music.
This article illustrates the notion of power since it shows to what extent the BBC dominated
the airwaves until the 1960s in the United Kingdom. What is more, it depicts how important
cultural exchanges were, here between the USA and Great Britain. It also shows how closing
one’s borders can lead some people to call for a broader space, to push the geographical
and cultural limits and to bypass the law to get more free space.

2. Pirate radio
& Productions possibles :
After watching the trailer for the film The Boat that Rocked I can give a brief description of what
the film is about. A group of mavericks decide to set up a pirate radio station and broadcast their
shows from a boat off the coast on England. The people working on the radio show also seem to
enjoy a lot of parties and they invite lots of young people to have fun with them on the boat. The
team run into difficulties when officials try to shut down their radio station. They put up a fight and
try to save “The Boat that Rocked”. It is unclear as to how the film ends from the trailer.

32 •

U N IT 2

3. THE POWER OF MUSIC

MANUEL & P. 35

1. Sounds of the Sixties
> Mise en œuvre :
Pour les classes les plus faibles, une fiche d’exploitation et son corrigé sont disponibles sur
le site compagnon.

> Script de l’enregistrement (CD 1, plage 10)
Paul: Well, my happiest memories in terms of music are from the 60s! There were so many
good songs from the 60s that it would be very difficult to name just a few, but I suppose
if I tell you Sugar Sugar by The Archies or Strawberry Field by The Beatles or… Everybody
remembers the tunes…
Journalist: Oh yes, I suppose we could all start to sing along...
Paul: And there were all these beautiful albums too. Just think of Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely
Hearts Club Band by The Beatles. It is one of the most commercially successful albums of
the 60s. It represented everything that was going on in the 60s and in particular in 1967,
the psychedelic thing that was predominant at the time... LSD and its influence on music.
To me, Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band was the finest rock album of the decade,
if not the twentieth century.
Journalist: But there were no MP3 players, no high tech at that time. Can you tell us how
people would listen to their music back then?
Paul: The new pop music blared from every teenager’s transistor radio, most of it broadcast
from offshore pirate radio stations, in fact. And then we started to watch Top of the Pops
on television… Oh yes, TV was a real revolution in the 50s and 60s. It went from being a
luxury for the few to entertainment for the many, and a regular source of conversation. Well,
unfortunately, hardly any programmes of that time remain today because a lot of them were
just “wiped” after they were aired. It was just the way things were done in those days, and
nobody seemed to realize until later the significance of what they were doing.
Journalist: Paul, we’re coming to the end of our interview about the sounds of the Sixties.
What would your final words be?
Paul: Uh… For many young people, especially young adults, the 60s was truly a magical
age, an age when the world or the Western part of it reached an almost “Utopian” state.
Journalist: This is a perfect conclusion. Thank you, Paul.

& Productions possibles :
b.

In this interview, Paul, who was a teenager in the 1960s, talks about his favourite groups of
the decade, especially The Beatles. He is very nostalgic about that period of his life. He brings
us back to that era, reminding us that technology has changed a lot since then: instead of
playing their music on MP3 players or iTunes, they had only transistor radios to listen to their
favourite songs. He also talks about the beginnings of television. Today, it is hard for us to
imagine a world without television, but Paul reminds us that in the 60s it was new and exciting.
(103 words)

U N IT 2

• 33

UNIT

2

THE SWINGING SIXTIES

2. Top of the Pops
& Productions possibles :
Group 1: Ruby Tuesday, Within You Without You, Space Oddity
Common points: These three songs are all about the impossibility to communicate. In Ruby
Tuesday, the singer is depressed because the girl he loves has left him. Ruby Tuesday is a very
sad day for the singer, and yet we have the impression that the girl has left in order to catch
her dreams. “Catch your dreams before they slip away, dying all the time, lose your dreams
and you will lose your mind.” In Within You Without You, communication is difficult because
people hide “behind a wall of illusion”: they don’t face reality. They don’t see the common
thread that unites humanity. But the song ends on a note of hope that in the future people will
understand that love unites us all. Space Oddity is also about lack of communication because
the astronaut is so happy in outer space that he refuses to come down and doesn’t answer
the calls of Ground Control. He becomes stranded in space, but he is happy.
While Ruby Tuesday and Within You Without You both make references to love, in Space Oddity
the singer cuts off any ties to other people, escaping into outer space. Both Within You Without
You and Space Oddity refer to space, the space between people, or outer space. And these
last two songs seem to allude to drug use. Within You Without You seems very psychedelic
with its eastern melody structure and the line. The sensations described in the lyrics resemble
those of an LSD trip where users experience a dissolution of the limit between themselves
and the outside world, a feeling of unity with the universe. And of course the astronaut who
starts “floating in a most peculiar way” after taking his “protein pills” refers to someone on
drugs. In a 2003 interview, David Bowie explains that the inspiration for this song came from
watching the film 2001: A Space Odyssey while he was stoned.
Ruby Tuesday
Within You Without You
Space Oddity
Point of view: the
P. of v.: singer / narrator
P. of v.: singer / narrator
singer / narrator whose
Target: young people
who is on drugs
love has left him
Main themes: peace and
Target: young people
Target: young people
love (drugs)
Main themes: drugs,
Main theme: love
Describes: unity in the
outer space
Describes: love lost
world (drugs)
Describes: a drug trip
Group 2: Sky Pilot, A Day in the Life, Happy Jack
Common points: These three songs are about lies and hypocrisy. Sky Pilot is about a hypocritical chaplain, called the Sky Pilot, who blesses the soldiers and smiles at them as they are
about to leave for battle, confident that he has given them courage with the thought that God
is with them. While the soldiers are fighting (and some of them dying!), the clergyman simply
rests on his bed, satisfied with himself. But after the battle, when the soldiers return, one
soldier looks accusingly at the Sky Pilot remembering the words from the Bible: “Thou shalt
not kill.” This song denounces war and the military which sends young men to their death.
A Day in the Life also speaks about current events and senseless dying. It is also a song about
contrasts: a “lucky” man who dies; sadness and laughter; crowds vs the individual; holes
which can paradoxically fill something; the banality of an ordinary day (waking up) and the
irreversible finality of death. Meaning is turned inside out. The words in a newspaper which
announce death have somehow lost their impact and death itself becomes banal.

34 •

U N IT 2

Lies are a theme of Happy Jack as insensitive children lie to this odd man who spends his time
on the beach playing with the kids. They try to hurt Happy Jack. Pete Townshend based this
character on the strange, not very bright guys who used to hang around where the children
played on English beaches. The listener feels pity for this man who is mocked by the children,
but at the same time, the only positive point is that Jack is happy no matter what.
A little anecdote: Townsend was said to have met Happy Jack in person on the beaches of
the Isle of Wight during one of the very famous festivals which take place there every summer
since 1968.
Sky Pilot
A Day in the Life
Happy Jack
Point of view: external
P. of v.: singer / narrator
P. of v.: external view
view of the “Sky Pilot”
Target: the conventional
of Happy Jack and the
Target: the establishment,
older generation
children
the government
Main themes: everyday
Main theme: children
Main theme: war
life, death
Denounces: mistreatment
Denounces: war
Denounces: senseless
of others
death
Group 3: Can’t Buy Me Love, Won’t Get Fooled Again, Satisfaction
Common points: All of the songs in Group 3 express negation (CAN’T buy me love, WON’T
get fooled again, CAN’T get no satisfaction) and thus show a rejection of the status quo.
The first song in Group 3, Can’t Buy Me Love, criticizes the consumer society and praises
love. This song expresses the ideals of the hippy commune culture where money and individual
property are frowned upon. Peace and love!
Satisfaction by The Rolling Stones follows in the same vein of anti-consumerism, as we hear
the singer complaining about commercials he hears on the radio or sees on TV. The title itself
is a take-off of the phrase commonly used as the final selling point, “Satisfaction Guaranteed!”
Won’t Get Fooled Again, on the other hand, is an anti-war song showing the futility of war.
There are many references to the fact that war is just history repeating itself, starting with the
title itself, Won’t Get Fooled Again. There is the image of people fighting with their children
at their feet; the fighting will go from one generation to the next. The singer talks about the
new constitution, the new revolution and the changes all around, but then plays his guitar
“just like yesterday” indicating that in fact nothing has really changed. This idea is reiterated
in the second verse, where the singer says that the world is just the same and history hasn’t
changed, the banners that have been used for one revolution will just be reused in the next. The
final two lines bring this idea home: “Meet the new boss / Same as the old boss.” The singer
also insinuates that the population has not been told the truth, they have been “hypnotized”
or “fooled” by the establishment. The tone is ironic.
Can’t Buy Me Love
Point of view: singer /
narrator who is in love
Target: young people
Main themes: love,
anti-consumerism
Denounces:
the consumer society

Won’t Get Fooled Again
P. of v.: singer/narrator
Target: the establishment
Main theme: war
Denounces: war

Satisfaction
P. of v.: singer / narrator
Target: conventional society
Main theme: anti-consumerism
Denounces:
the consumer society

U N IT 2

• 35

UNIT

2

THE SWINGING SIXTIES
Group 4: Wild Thing, Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds, My Generation
Common points: The main theme of Wild Thing by The Troggs is love, but in this anti-conformist decade, the object of love is “wild”, unconventional, uncontrolled by society’s rules
and structures.
My Generation also sings the praises of the youth of the 60s, a new generation that rejects
conventions. The parents’ generation is depicted as old, cold, critical (“People try to put us
down”) and the singer suggests the old ones should just “fade away”. The praise for the young
people consists in the repetition of the words “talkin’ ‘bout my generation”, pounding the idea
in joyful rhythms.
One way young people showed their rejection of their parents and other adults is by taking
drugs: The Beatle’s song Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds is a barely hidden reference to the
psychedelic drug LSD. The song describes an LSD trip which causes hallucinations, synaesthesia (confusion of the senses) and an altered sense of time. LSD played a key role in the
counterculture of the 60s.
Wild Thing
Point of view: singer /
narrator who is in love
Target: young people
Main theme: love
Praises: anti-conformism

3. The picture factory

Lucy in the Sky with
Diamonds
P. of v.: singer / narrator
on a drug trip
Target: young people
Main theme: LSD
Praises: drugs

My Generation
P. of v.: singer / narrator of
the 60s generation
Target: young people
Main theme: the new
generation
Praises: the mentality of
the youth
Denounces: the mentality
of the older generations

& Productions possibles :
b.

I have chosen to present to you the song Space Oddity written and sung by David Bowie
because I think this song brings together many elements that characterize the 60s. First of
all, an important part of this decade was the Space Race between the United States and the
Soviet Union, culminating with the first moonwalk in 1969 by the American Neil Armstrong.
Space was a common theme during this decade, and was the subject of many books, films,
television programs and songs. David Bowie said, in an interview, that he was inspired to write
this song after seeing Stanley Kubrick’s space film 2001: A Space Odyssey in 1968. The song
wasn’t released until 1969, as the timing of the album’s release was planned to coincide with
the first man on the moon. It is interesting to note that the BBC chose to use this music as
background music when airing the images of the moon landing. David Bowie later said in an
interview that he thought it was funny because obviously nobody at the BBC had actually paid
any attention to the lyrics of the song, because the astronaut in the song gets stranded in
space! Not exactly the idea you want to get across for such a momentous event! This song
also represents the counterculture of the 60s because the lyrics can be understood to mean
that the man is on a drug “trip”. After taking his “protein pills” (drugs), Major Tom goes into
outer space (gets high on drugs), and is so happy up there that he doesn’t want to come down.
Taking drugs was a way for the youth of this decade to protest against the conventions and
rules of the older generation. The fact that this song is about drugs was confirmed by David
Bowie who said that he was stoned when watching Kubrick’s film. Bowie echoes the ideals of
his generation with his song that praises drugs and thumbs its nose at the adult generation.

36 •

U N IT 2

4. YEARS OF PROTEST

MANUEL & P. 36

> Mise en œuvre :
- On pourra diviser la classe en deux. Une moitié travaillera sur les documents de l’exercice
1, pendant que l’autre travaillera sur les paroles de la chanson. Après la mise en commun,
le troisième exercice servira de prolongement et de synthèse. Il pourra être fait en classe
(à l’oral tout simplement ou au laboratoire de langues) ou en devoir à la maison.
- Le texte Universal Soldier a été enregistré et est disponible sur le site compagnon.

1. A protest symbol
Réponse personnelle.

2. Universal soldier
Informations complémentaires (cf. l. 21) :
– “The hand writing on the wall” (or “the handwriting on the wall” or “the writing is on the
wall” or “Mene Mene”) is an idiom for “imminent doom or misfortune” and for “the future
is predetermined”.
The expression originates from the Book of Daniel, chapter 5, from the handwriting on the
wall that was witnessed at a banquet hosted by king Belshazzar. Upon profaning the sacred
vessels pillaged from the Jerusalem Temple, a disembodied hand suddenly appeared and
wrote on the palace wall the mysterious words, “Mene, Mene, Tekel, Parsin.” The prophet
Daniel was summoned to interpret this message as the imminent end for the Babylonian
kingdom. That same night, Belshazzar was killed and the Persians sacked the capital city.
www.en.wikipedia.org
– To read the original text:
www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Daniel+5&version=NIV

CORRIGÉ DE LA FICHE DU WORKBOOK (P. 7-8)
1

He refers to the universal soldier.

2

a man’s height

3

All the soldiers are 31.

4

a) une lance b) fights = present • ’s been = has been = present perfect
c) War is a characteristic of human life. + People always find new means to fight.

5

“And he knows he always will kill”
Wherever he comes from, or whatever his religion, a soldier is a soldier, and his job is to
kill, no matter what his values are or what person commands him to do so.

U N IT 2

• 37

UNIT

2

THE SWINGING SIXTIES

6

a) It refers to “fighting”.
b) Many countries are mentioned to suggest that it doesn’t matter what side you are on
or what country you defend, you are still fighting against someone and this will not bring
peace, only more fighting.

7

- “he’s the one who must decide who’s to live and who’s to die” (l. 19-20)
- “And he’s fighting for Democracy, He’s fighting for the Reds, He says it’s for the peace
of all.” (l. 16-18)

8

a) a warning (of death and destruction)
b) A soldier thinks he always has a good reason to fight but he never sees what is bound
to happen.

9

They both gathered a lot of soldiers and waged long wars in order to build and expand their
empire.

10

a) “but”
b) an anti-war activist
c) a criticism of soldiers: “and without him all this killing can’t go on” (l. 27)

11

He is responsible: “his orders come from far away no more” (l. 29)

12

a) It refers to a higher authority far from the battlefield.
b) The soldier cannot say he has been ordered to fight, he is accountable for his actions.

13

a) “They” refers to “his orders”.
b) The soldiers who accept to fight are responsible for the war, the war will never end as
long as there are soldiers to fight.

ACTION!

Objectif
j f

1

This song shows the universality of the soldier, no matter what his physical characteristics are, or what weapons he uses. The singer wants to denounce war and highlights a
contradiction: although the soldier is used as cannon fodder and is ready to sacrifice
his life for a cause or a country, he cannot put the blame on a higher or far away authority. He bears complete responsibility for his actions. The singer asserts that it is no use
fighting and exposes the absurdity and uselessness of war.

2

The singer resorts to an alliteration in “f” on lines 1-2 “five foot-two… feet-four… fights”,
but also to anaphora in almost each stanza, for instance in stanza 3, all the lines start with
“he’s fighting”. What is more, he uses enumeration, such as on lines 5-6, where he lists all
the religions: “He’s a Catholic, a Hindu, an Atheist, a Jain”. Finally, he marks an opposition
with the link word “but” on line 22.
In this song, the soldier is considered an anti-hero because he is made responsible for his
actions. The singer does not sympathize with him; he even contends that the soldier is to
blame for fighting. Instead of being represented as a hero or a brave man defending his
values and country, the “Universal soldier” is guilty for not putting an end to a conflict.

38 •

U N IT 2

3. Sixties podcast
& Productions possibles :
The protest symbol and the song, Universal Soldier, both reveal something about the atmosphere of the Sixties. The emblem for the campaign for nuclear disarmament was designed
by an artist, an individual who was against nuclear war. The fact that this simple sign spread
so rapidly and came to be recognised by thousands of people means that the Sixties was a
time when the voice of the individual was heard. People began to rise up against government
powers and they were united in their ideas by signs such as this one. Their numbers grew
and grew and soon the individual became a group and a force to be reckoned with. The song
carries the same message as it is used to unite people and help individuals to recognize that
we are above all human beings regardless of where we come from or our political views.

5. YEARS OF FASHION

MANUEL & P. 37

1. An icon of the 60s
& Productions possibles :
a.

What strikes me most about this advert is the bright, bold colours. Though prints are fashionable nowadays, we can see that solids were trendy in the 60s. The shape and colour of the
letters of the slogan and the stylized flowers are also typical of that decade. The model herself
is so skinny she almost looks anorexic. I guess that’s how she got her nickname Twiggy: she’s
as thin as a twig, a stick. The shorts and dress don’t seem very short to us now, but it must
have been shocking at the time. Only a decade earlier, girls’ dresses still covered their knees.
One more thing I find interesting is that in the ad they suggest to their future clients to write
a letter to find out which shops sell “Twiggy-rigs”. Of course nowadays you could just check
out the website, and probably even order the clothes online. Times have changed!

b.

boyish – flirtatious – fresh – simple – casual

2. Watch a video : Mary Quant
N. B. : la fiche élève, son corrigé, le script et l’exploitation de l’extrait se trouvent dans le
livret du DVD-Rom et sur le site compagnon.

3. What would your style be?
> Mise en œuvre :
Pour les classes les plus faibles, une fiche d’exploitation et son corrigé sont disponibles sur
le site compagnon.

U N IT 2

• 39

UNIT

2

THE SWINGING SIXTIES

> Script de l’enregistrement (CD 1, plage 12)
Intro
The 1960s was a revolutionary decade that brought about great social change. This had a
big influence on teen fashions. British designer Mary Quant pioneered the famous mini-skirt,
and helped to make the 1960s an iconic era of fashion that brought many new styles. 0’26’’
Part 1
For example there were the Mods, whose styles were very popular among teenagers in the
60s. Fashion model Twiggy was a famous Mod. British fashion designer, Mary Quant, was
key to the growth in popularity of mod fashion in the 1960s. Her short mini-skirt challenged
the previously conservative fashion of the 50s. This super short skirt became a distinctly
popular item worn by 1960s mod teenagers. The mini-dresses were colored with bright prints
or geometric patterns, although monochrome was also favoured. Bold, colored tights were
also popular items. Knee-high boots and high-heeled pumps were the fashionable footwear
for Mods. A popular accessory for girls was black false eyelashes, like Twiggy’s. 1’22’’
Part 2
The Rockers’ style was very different of course. Rockers were another teenage subculture
of the 60s, and rivaled the Mods. They preferred to be more scruffy and rebellious. Rockers’
fashions included leather jackets and black jeans. Heavy biker boots, studs and chains were
worn. Rockers often greased their hair like Elvis. 1’49’’
Part 3
But we mustn’t forget the Hippie look. It developed as anti-war demonstrations grew stronger.
Hippies were carefree and wore casual and loose clothing such as peasant blouses and long
tie-dye skirts, flowers and other zany prints. They were also the first ones to make bell-bottom
jeans fashionable. They also wore beaded jewelry, bandanas and bangles, and placed flowers in
their hair. As for shoes, they preferred walking barefooted or wearing sandals to embrace nature.

& Productions possibles :
b.

Twiggy is my favourite icon of the Sixties so I am going to dress up as her for the party. I will
wear my hair short as she did and spray it blonde. I will wear long black fake eyelashes to give
me doe eyes which are synonymous with Twiggy! I will wear a block print dress in yellow and
white which was a popular style at the time and of course match all my accessories with this
colour scheme. On my feet I will wear white lace up knee high boots with a block heel just
like Twiggy did.

4. Movie corner
& Productions possibles :
b.

Through these six mostly British films and TV series, the 21st century viewer can get an idea of
some cultural themes of the 1960s in the UK. There seems to be a certain amount of uncertainty
about the future and we get the idea that the young people at the time felt that they were living in
a pivotal moment. A common subject seems to be rebellion against established cultural codes,
and questioning oppressive norms that youth at that time were brought up to aspire to. These
movies also seem to question gender roles and the importance of tradition. We are reminded
of the fascination with outer space, the future, technology, artificial intelligence (Thunderbirds,
2001: A Space Odyssey), and the cultural revolution of the late Sixties (Nowhere Boy, If…).

40 •

U N IT 2

c.

2001: A Space Odyssey by Stanley Kubrick is a classic movie and a must-see that you should
put at the top of your films-to-watch list. Don’t be put off by the particularly long running time
(161 minutes) – you won’t ever get bored during this science fiction epic. It is true that today
outer space represents less of a complete mystery than it did at the time, but the feeling of
utter awe and reverence for the as yet undiscovered powers of the universe can still be felt by
today’s viewers. There is so little dialogue that it feels less rooted in a specific time and place
than it might have had its characters spoken more. What I found the most relevant to today’s
world is the notion that it may be dangerous to be so completely dependent on technology.
While the computer that controls the space ship is extremely efficient and useful, and makes
the entire mission possible in the first place, its malfunction turn for the worse also reminds
us how delegating power to a machine could also potentially be treacherous.

6. STILL A MAN’S WORLD?

MANUEL & P. 38-39

1. Share information
CORRIGÉ DE LA FICHE DU WORKBOOK (P. 8-10)
TEXT A: NO SURRENDER
1

“the struggle for equal pay” (l. 5)

2

Le Ministre du Travail

3

a) encouraging • understanding b) hope

4

equal pay

5

It means that she stresses the fact that she cannot grant it to them now.

6

She is surprised. • She didn’t expect Mrs. Castle’s answer.

7

a) disagree • argue against b) Industry is going to object to equal pay for men and women.

8

the Parliament • the media

9

a) easy b) what is easy c) Things that are too easy to get are not worth having.

10

determined • adamant / unflinching • straightforward • strong-willed • independent
“No!” (l. 19) + “Rita’s vehemence still surprises them.” (l. 20) + “that ain’t good enough”
(l. 22)

11

You have to learn to wait.

12

What compensation do you want? What can I give you for you to go back to work?

13

Rita’s demands
- guarantee of an Equal Pay Act
- 90% of a man’s salary, “considerable
movement towards the male rate”

Mrs. Castle’s negotiations
- return to work
- 75% of the male rate

U N IT 2

• 41

UNIT

2

THE SWINGING SIXTIES

ACTION!
This text deals with the encounter between the Secretary of State for Employment and
underpaid women who genuinely believe that women deserve equal pay to men. They try
to convince this woman to support their cause and to help them get what they want. They
talk her into backing them up with concrete measures. The Secretary of State promises
them to be on their side, however they have to be patient. The leader remains firm and
unyielding; she stands her ground and shows an unexpected but forceful willingness
to change things. In the end, the Secretary seems ready to negotiate.
Objectif
j f

Firstly, this extract shows the power men had over women in the workplace. Women were
not treated on an equal footing when it came to their pay. Nevertheless, in the 1960s,
women were trying to regain power and to assert their rights asking for equality in terms
of salary. At that moment, women really started to become aware of the injustice they
were suffering, and stood strong for their rights. They asserted their power by organizing
themselves in trade unions and went on strike for a pay rise. Although many men sneered
at them and looked down on these determined women, they put forth their power to force
a compromise and, later, a social change.
TEXT B: 1968: WOMEN’S LIB BECOMES A POWERFUL FORCE
1

a) advance b) in the event of c) lay down d) pass

2

a) True. “The Matrimonial Property Act laid down that a wife’s work […] as a housewife
[…] was to be regarded as an equal contribution […] if, in the event of divorce, the family
home had to be divided.” (l. 1-4)
b) True. “whether in jobs outside the house or as a housewife within it” (l. 2-3)
c) False. “it does not come fully into practice for five years” (l. 5-6)
d) True. “a process of reform which gathered momentum during the Sixties in areas such
as abortion, divorce and contraception” (l. 8-10)
e) True. “a movement […] in its infancy here compared with more strident campaigns in
the United States” (l. 11-12)

ACTION!
In 1968, several laws were passed to grant more equality to women. These acts paved the
way to a deep transformation of British society and of the way women were considered
at work as well as at home.

& Productions possibles :
c.

Both texts on these two pages are about the advances that were made in women’s rights in
Britain in the 1960s. Though they are different in format (one is a screenplay and the other a
history book), they both talk about the Equal Pay Act that was passed in Parliament in 1968,
establishing the principle of equal pay for equal work. It is clear from both texts that there had
been discrimination against women, but that much was accomplished in the 60s to reduce
inequality between men and women in the workplace and in British society in general.

42 •

U N IT 2

2. Standing strong
& Productions possibles :
a.
b.

c.

d.

Harold Wilson was the UK Prime Minister at the time. He belonged to the Labour Party.
At the beginning, Barbara Castle is hypocritical. She says she is proud of the Ford workers
for the battle they’ve fought, and adds, “I fully support the struggle for equal pay.” However,
instead of giving the women what they’ve been asking for, she asks them to go back to work,
with an ambiguous promise of helping their fight sometime in the future. She is doubtful that
any real steps can be made in Parliament: “The Lords’ll kick up a fuss. The press’ll have a
field day… It isn’t going to be easy—”. When Rita O’Grady reminds Barbara Castle that she is
a working woman just like them, Mrs. Castle appears more understanding and supportive
of their cause.
Barbara Castle starts by praising Rita O’Grady for her struggle for equal pay, but she explains
that changes won’t happen right away and Ford workers must be patient. Rita challenges
that attitude, saying that they must fight. When Mrs. Castle advises the girls to go back to
work, Rita refuses to obey and demands substantial proof that changes will be made. Mrs.
Castle hesitates, but Rita convinces her that women – the Ford workers, just like Mrs. Castle
herself – deserve equal pay for equal work.
We can imagine that in the film, after the meeting with Barbara Castle, the women workers
go back to work with an immediate pay raise (somewhere between 75 and 90% of the male
rate at Ford). And the situation for women does change. After the strike, things DID happen
in Parliament. The Equal Pay Act of 1970 was passed in Parliament as a direct result of the
1968 Ford strike, even though it didn’t come into effect until 1975. Other laws passed in the
areas of abortion, divorce and contraception were also steps towards equality between the
sexes in the eyes of the law.

3. Debriefing
My fellow workers, I’ve just met with the Secretary of State for Employment, Mrs. Castle,
who understands our struggle and supports our cause. I can finally say we’ve got somethin’
solid in our fight for equal pay. First of all, Mrs. Castle has promised to negotiate with our
bosses at Ford for an immediate pay increase, so we’ll be earning 90% of what they pay the
men. And secondly, she’ll do everythin’ she can to get an Equal Pay Act passed in Parliament
to guarantee by law that women’ll get equal pay for equal work. Our fight isn’t over yet, but
we’re makin’ strides an’ we’re almost there!

4. Making the headlines
Great Strides in Women’s Rights
Today, after a meeting between Secretary of State for Employment, Barbara Castle, and strike
leader Rita O’Grady, women sewing machinists at the Ford car factory agreed to go back to
work, but not before being assured of a substantial increase in their salaries and promises of
an Equal Pay Act to be voted in Parliament. With surprising boldness, Mrs. O’Grady insisted on
salaries for her female co-workers to be paid at 90% of the rate for males, and obtained it.

U N IT 2

• 43

UNIT

2

THE SWINGING SIXTIES
Though parity will not be achieved overnight, this is a major breakthrough for women’s rights.
Mrs. Castle has promised to get the Equal Pay Act passed through Parliament this year, though
the implementation of the law will probably take place in stages, perhaps over a period of five
years. After reforms in abortion, divorce and contraception, this act, as well as the Patrimonial
Property Act which counts a wife’s work inside or outside the home as an equal contribution
to the family, raises the status of women from the subservient housewife to an equal partner
in marriage. This is one more step towards the liberation of women, and a giant leap towards
equality of the sexes. (201 words)

LANGUAGE AT WORK

MANUEL & P. 40-41

1

a. It was difficult for her because she wasn’t used to speaking in public.
b. Women didn’t use to have the same rights as men.
c. There used to be great inequalities in wages between men and women / great gender
inequalities.
d. Men weren’t used to doing household chores, but things have changed.
e. Men never used to do any housework or ironing.

2

a. defend: Grâce aux femmes qui ont osé défendre leurs droits, la loi sur l’égalité des salaires
a été adoptée en 1975.
b. accept: Les femmes ne pouvaient plus accepter d’être payées nettement moins que les
hommes pour le même travail.
c. reduce • abandon • continued: Elles avaient peu d’argent quand elles étaient en grève,
elles ont même dû réduire leurs dépenses, mais elles n’ont pas abandonné et ont continué
à combattre.
d. refused: Rita a refusé l’offre parce qu’elle pensait que l’augmentation (de salaire) n’était
pas suffisante.
e. discovered • returned: Elle s’est mise en colère quand elle a découvert que l’une des
ouvrières était retournée au travail.
f. admired • abolish: Les collègues de Rita l’admiraient parce qu’elle était tout à fait décidée
à en finir avec les inégalités de salaire.

3

a. let • made • have
b. let
c. have
d. make
e. let • make / get / have
f. had
g. let • make
h. made

44 •

U N IT 2

4

Dear Jane,
It is understandable that you want
to look like the beautiful Twiggy. Try
to persuade your mother by showing
her pictures of how sophisticated
Twiggy looks with her short crop,
explain how manageable it will be
to maintain and above all, remind
your mother that hair grows back!
Should the cut not be to her liking
you can grow it out again in a matter of months. Let her know that you
do not want to look provocative and
I am convinced she will allow you
to look the way you want.
Good luck!

Dear Paul,
Your father comes from a different
generation and he may be finding it
hard to adjust to the times. I’m sure
he didn’t dress like his father when
he was your age! Try to make him
understand that you are old enough
to decide how you want to dress. Your
image is a reflection of who you are
not who he is.
Good luck!

Dear Mike,
Rock is not everyone’s cup of tea!
First, thank your uncle for the gift
but kindly return the ticket to him
and let him know that you have different musical tastes to him. Perhaps
you could offer to take him to a concert in the future so you can share
with him the music that you enjoy?
Good luck!

Build up your vocabulary
1

a. – In the Sixties, young people protested against American involvement in Vietnam. They
criticized the US government for sending troops there.
– They also questioned consumerism and materialism.
– Young people began to revolt against the conservative norms of the time.
– They objected to authority and the government, and demanded more freedom and rights
for women and minorities.
b. – Songs also became a means of protest.
– Singers supported causes, condemned injustice, inequalities and discrimination. They
were involved in social issues.
– Later on they endorsed political causes and performed in benefit concerts.
– In the USA, the protest song was one of the main symbols of the Sixties youth culture.
– Singers were more and more committed and influential. They took advantage of their fame
to make the public aware of social issues. Songs were biased.

2

Peter Kennard’s photomontage entitled Defended to Death depicts the planet Earth wearing
a gas mask. The eyes are replaced by the flags of the United States (on the left side, which
would correspond to the West on a map) and Great Britain (on the right). The mouth piece is
spewing out nuclear missiles. The gas mask reminds us of the Vietnam War (1955-1975) and the
chemical warfare (Napalm and Agent Orange) that was used on a vast scale by the American
military. The nuclear missiles refer to the arms race. The flags emphasize the idea that the
two countries are involved in this race. The gas mask is vomiting up missiles, suggesting that
the Earth is ill from having eaten too many. The title Defended to Death indicates that while
the US claimed they were “protecting” Vietnam, they actually destroyed the land and the
population with their bombs and chemical weapons. With this 1983 photomontage, Kennard

U N IT 2

• 45

UNIT

2

THE SWINGING SIXTIES
is reminding people of what happened in Vietnam and the devastating effects of war, and he
is trying to get across the message that the arms race must be stopped, that war and weapons are destroying our planet. Britain’s “unofficial war artist” Kennard provided graphic visual
images for the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in the 1980s, a campaign that started in
the 1960s, at the time of the cold war.

IMPROVE
YOUR SPEAKING SKILLS

MANUEL & P. 42

N. B. : le script ci-dessous sert de corrigé à la question 1. b.

> Script de l’enregistrement (MP3 n°4)
One day in 1968, Rita O’Grady had had enough. She led 187 female workers at a Ford Motor
Company factory in Dagenham Essex to go on strike. At Ford’s, women were paid much less
than their male counterparts – no matter how skilled they were, women were only paid 87%
of the rate that the lowest paid, unskilled men received. This was not fair and Mrs. O’Grady
initiated a protest that lasted three weeks and started political waves. The strike successfully
shut down the factory because of a lack of car seats sewn by women. But the movement
didn’t end with the strike in Dagenham, it began to spread to other factories as more women
began to protest. Unhappy and frustrated, the factory owners tried to pressure the women
into going back to work but they refused. As a representative of working women and the
working class, Rita O’Grady met with Barbara Castle, the British Employment Secretary, to
discuss terms. In order to pacify the Lords and factory owners, Castle asked the women to
return to work without first receiving a guarantee of equal pay but Mrs. O’Grady refused and
demanded “something solid” before accepting to return to work. As a result of this meeting
and Rita’s determination, the strikers finally got the guarantee they would now be paid 92%
of what men were paid. The actions of Rita O’Grady and her co-workers paved the way for
the Equal Pay Act of 1970 in which companies were required by law to give equal pay for
equal work regardless of sex.

YOUR TASK

MANUEL & P. 43

& Productions possibles :
Example 1: Have you ever heard of the British television series called The Avengers? You
may recognize it if I tell you that the leading male character wears a bowler hat and carries an
umbrella, and the leading female character wears black leather boots. You may have seen old
reruns of what the French call Chapeau melon et bottes de cuir, a British “spy-fi” television
series that includes elements of espionage, fantasy and science fiction. This series embodies
the 60s in many ways.

46 •

U N IT 2

It is not surprising that the main character, John Steed, works for the British Intelligence, as
the series was produced during the Cold War. Though spy stories have always been popular,
they were particularly topical at the time. Actually, Steed, played by Patrick Macnee, does not
look typically 60s. With his Savile Row suit, bowler hat and umbrella, he is the typical British
gentleman of a previous generation. His younger female partners, however, wear outfits that
were the latest mod fashions in the 60s. Dr. Cathy Gale, played by actress Honor Blackman,
wears tight-fitting black leather outfits and “kinky boots”. As a matter of fact, Gale epitomizes
her decade in many ways: she is intelligent, assertive, forward-looking and self-assured – in
short, a liberated woman. Some people have said that her character got some of her charm
because in her earliest episodes, Gale spoke lines that were originally written for a man. In
the first shows, Steed was actually the assistant to Dr. David Keel, played by Ian Kendry,
but Kendry left after the first series and the character of Cathy Gale became Steel’s stylish,
but spunky assistant. In the episode I watched, The Golden Eggs, we learn that Gale lives in
Steed’s flat. Even if it is made clear that it is only temporary while Gale is looking for a new
home, it must have been quite shocking at the time for a young unmarried woman to be living
in a man’s apartment!
To conclude, we can say that this series, which was extremely popular at the time, offers a
model of the liberated woman, an example for the “new generation” to follow. To a modern
viewer, the characters, the themes, and the costumes bring one back to the vibrant age of
the 1960s.
Example 2: My presentation focuses on the song Dedicated Follower of Fashion released
in 1966 by a band called The Kinks. The song is about a male “pleasure seeking individual”
who lives in London and spends much of his time going shopping for new clothes and then
flaunting his new style at parties and on nights out. I have chosen to talk about this song as
it represents the importance and the changes in the fashion world at that time, for example,
“polka dots” and “stripes” were all the rage and many young people sort out new trends on
Carnaby Street which is referenced in the song. The song was written many years ago, however,
I feel that it is still relevant today. The lyrics show how individuals are driven by consumerism.

SPEAKING CORNER
A.

MANUEL & P. 44-45

The Beatles’ song She’s Leaving Home and the accompanying photo illustrate the generation
gap that divided families in the 1960s. The lyrics tell the story of a girl who is running away
from home. She leaves a note for her parents and sneaks out at dawn. When her parents find
the note, they are shocked and don’t understand what made her leave them. They feel they
have always done everything they could for their daughter, sacrificed their lives to provide for
her, bought her everything she needed. At the end of the song we learn that what she needed
was not something that could be bought. She needed the “fun” that had always been denied
her. It appears that these parents were very serious and strict with their daughter. We are led
to believe that they never truly understood her or really communicated with her because the
lyrics state that “she’s leaving home after living alone for so many years.” The song begins by
describing the daughter in the third person, but in the chorus the passages in parentheses are
quotations from the parents. The fact that there are two separate narrative voices underlines
the division between the parents and their daughter.

U N IT 2

• 47

UNIT

2

THE SWINGING SIXTIES
The photo is a striking visual representation of this generation gap and clearly illustrates the
song lyrics. The daughter, whom we see from the back, is confronting her parents. She is
very stylish, with her bouffant hairdo and alligator skin handbag. With one hand on her hip and
her handbag flung behind her shoulder, her stance shows her courage and determination to
confront her parents and announce she is leaving. The parents, on the other hand, epitomize
the older generation. As we see by the expression on their faces, they are astonished and
confused by their daughter’s behaviour, completely clueless. They are not at all fashionable:
the mother in her dowdy dress and her old-lady hairstyle, the father in his button-down cardigan and greased hair with a part down the middle reminiscent of the 1920s! The mother is
doing some sort of arts and crafts project, the father is looking up from his newspaper – all
very conventional. Even the setting contributes to the idea that they are old-fashioned: the
lace curtains, printed wallpaper and Formica table with practical fold-down sides. They look
sensible and stern, not particularly understanding or fun, out of step with the new generation.
The daughter’s desire to leave is thus understandable.

B.

Advertisement: This advertisement is quite shocking to the post-women’s lib generation. The
woman is presented as totally submissive to and dependent on her husband. We see this first
of all in the position of their bodies. The man, in the center of the photo, is a full head higher
than the woman. He is in front and turns his back on his wife, whereas the woman is behind,
leaning against his back. She is wearing a chef’s hat indicating that she is the one who cooks
for her husband. But at the same time she is also a sexual object, with red lipstick and nail
polish and stylish blond hair. The words printed on the photo appear just in front of the man’s
face, and are clearly his words: “The Chef does everything but cook – that’s what wives are
for,” which signifies that the main role of a wife is to care for her husband. We can see on the
counter in front of them the fruits of her labour – various drinks and dishes she has prepared
for her husband. In addition, the man is the one in charge of the pocketbook. Even if it is the
woman who cooks, it is the man who decides which kitchen appliances to purchase. This is
made clear in the slogan “I’m giving my wife a Kenwood Chef,” and also in the address coupon
at the bottom left-hand corner where we understand that in order to obtain this wonderful
consumer object, a woman must convince her husband to buy it: “Send off this coupon for a
husband-persuading leaflet.”
Though we have learned in this chapter that in the 60s great strides were made in Parliament
towards guaranteeing equality of the sexes in the name of the law, we can see by this ad
that it would take much longer to change mentalities. Advertisements are a great barometer
of public opinion because in marketing one must cater to the customers’ needs and desires.
They never would have designed this ad if it hadn’t reflected the opinions of their potential
clients. The message here is clearly that the man is in charge.
Quotation: I think that Mary Quant’s comment on fashion is interesting, because there are
elements of truth in it, but at the same time it seems quite regressive. The quotation appears
to be aimed at women, although this is not specified. If we interpret the quotation as being
about women, I find it insulting that Mary should describe fashion as a tool to compete in
life “outside the home”, because this suggests that “inside the home” is where women are
most comfortable. This comment also suggests that fashion is the most important factor in a
woman’s success; I believe that this opinion is outdated and offensive. However, regardless
of whether or not this quotation is only about women, it is a fact of life that people often judge
others on their appearance. Therefore, I think that there is some validity in the assertion that
looking appealing is likely to make people take more interest in you. However, the reverse
of this statement is also true: if you are wearing clothes that you think are “fashionable” but

48 •

U N IT 2

someone else dislikes, they might be inclined to be hostile towards you. Despite the fact that
Mary Quant was born in a different era, it is still true that too much importance is often placed
on appearances these days. However, particularly in the case of women, I think that people
increasingly recognise the importance of intelligence and personality over fashion choices,
which is very reassuring. Therefore, I don’t think that people (women and men alike) should
rely on clothes in order to make a good impression on others.

PROLONGEMENT POSSIBLE À L’UNITÉ
> Évaluation sommative de PPC (p. 374 de ce Fichier).

U N IT 2

• 49


Documents similaires


Fichier PDF spaces exchanges
Fichier PDF image description
Fichier PDF anglais
Fichier PDF extrait 1
Fichier PDF dm anglais
Fichier PDF oped pc 1


Sur le même sujet..





10 x Duracell MN21 A23 12V Alkaline Batteries 23A LRV08 K23A E23A V23GA 12 Volt | 08.11.1804:42 Uhr KURSK*inklusive deutschem Untertitel* Adventure0 / 0994 Hits VID P2P DDL 0 Kommentare | Скачать APK