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ROYAUME DU MAROC

OFPPT
Office de la Formation Professionnelle et de la Promotion du Travail
DIRECTION RECHERCHE ET INGENIERIE DE FORMATION

RESUME THEORIQUE
&
GUIDE DE TRAVAUX PRATIQUES

ANGLAIS TECHNIQUE

SECTEUR : TERTIAIRE
NIVEAU : TS & T

1

Preface

This unit aims primarily the trainees in the tertiary dies, it’s an entirely new work as it intends
to support the technical learning by providing to trainees the necessary background in English
communication .
The unit is presented in the following way, initially it contains a complete and condensed
review of skills in English grammar to help trainees remaining and improving what they’ve
learned in high school .
To keep the unit within the context of tertiary learning, the second part of this module treats
the essential functions of the English communication within the company, like telephoning
and reporting information ( especially for secretaries), describing and analysing companies
trends, writing business letters in English, …for TSGE, TSC and TCE…etc and many other
functions useful for the trainees of “tertiaire”.
A list of irregular verbs and a business glossary have been listed at the end of the unit to help
trainees working as they can use the English/French glossary or the French/English one.
It is recommended to reach the real aim of this unit, to let trainees communicate in English so
that at every step of the unit incite them to speak, to discuss and to express their point of view.
We invite all the interested readers to give us their feedback concerning any side of the unit
( the presentation, the structure, the contents…..)

2

Préface

Ce module est principalement destiné aux filières du tertiaire, c’est un travail qui vise à
accompagner la formation technique en offrant aux stagiaires les connaissances nécessaires en
communication en langue anglaise.
Le module se présente comme suit, la première partie constitue une révision générale mais
brève de toutes les connaissances en grammaire anglaise.
Et afin de mieux cerner la formation tertiaire, la seconde partie de cette unité aborde quelques
fonctions essentielles de la communication au sein de l’entreprise comme le phoning, le
transfert des informations, les écrit professionnels ( essentiellement pour les secrétaires), ou
encore la description et l’analyse de l’évolution de l’entreprise ( pour les TSGE, TCE et
TSC...) ...etc
A la fin du module il y a une liste des verbes irréguliers ainsi qu’un glossaire Anglais/français
et Français /anglais .
Il est recommandé de faire travailler la communication chez les stagiaires en les incitant à
chaque étape de s’exprimer en anglais, de discuter leur points de vue car l’objectif principal est
celui d’améliorer leur capacité de s’exprimer correctement en anglais.

3

SUMMARY
PART 1/ GENERAL REVIEW
COURSES AND PRACTICES


















PRESENT SIMPLE & PROGRESSIVE ……………………………………………….5
PAST SIMPLE & PROGRESSIVE ………………………………………………....….8
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE & PROGRESSIVE …………………………………10
PAST PERFECT ………………………………………………………………………..13
INFINITIVE OR GERUND…………………………………………………………….15
PASSIVE VOICE ……………………………………………………………………….16
THE FUTURE ………………………………………………………………………..…19
CONDITIONNALS………………………………………………………………………20
COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS………...20
REPORTED SPEECH ………………………………………………………………….21
MODALS …………………………………………………………….…………………..24
o CAN, COULD & BE ABLE TO
o MAY & MIGHT
o MUST & HAVE TO
o OUGHT TO & SHOULD
o HAD BETTER & NEEDN'T
ADJECTIVES ……………………………………………………………………….….25
RELATIVE PRONOUNS & CLAUSES ………………………………………………26
PRONOUNS AND POSSESSIVES ……………………………………………………27
o PERSONAL PRONOUNS
o POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES
o POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
o REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
o RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS

WORD GAME…………………………………………………………………………..31

4

PART II/ FUNCTIONS
I- MEETING PEOPLE…………………………………………………………………….32
II- TELEPHONING………………………………………………………………………...37
III- COMPANIES…………………………………………………………………………….49
IV- REPORTING……………………………………………………………………………57
V- SOCIALIZING…………………………………………………………………….……..64
VI- MEETINGS………………………………………………………………………….…..67
VII-

MAKING ARRANGMENTS…………………………………………………….70

VIII-

DESCRIBING TRENDS………………………………………………………….77

IX- BUSINESS TRAVEL…………………………………………………………………….84
X- READING TEXTS………………………………………………………………………..88

BUSINESS GLOSSARY………………………………………………………………...………111


ENGLISH/FRENCH……………………………………………………………………..111



FRENCH/ENGLISH………………………………………………………………….....127

LIST OF USUAL IRREGULAR VERBS……………………………………………………..143
BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………………………….147

5

THE PRESENT SIMPLE:

Affirmative form
I look

we look

Negative form

Interrogative form

I do not look

we do not look

do I look?

do we look?

you look you look

you do not look

you do not look

do you look?

do you look?

he looks

he does not look

does he look?

she looks they look

she does not look they do not look

does she look? do they look?

it looks

it does not look

does it look?

THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE:

Affirmative form

Negative form

Interrogative form

we are

I am not

we are not

looking

looking

looking

you are

you are

you are not

you are not

are you

are you

looking

looking

looking

looking

looking?

looking?

I am looking

he is looking

he is not

she is

they are

looking

looking

it is looking

they are not
looking

are we
looking?

is he looking?

looking
she is not

am I looking?

looking

is she

are they

looking?

looking?

is it looking?

it is not looking
Present Simple
Uses


Permanent or long-term situations



Facts



Regular activities and routines
6



Feelings



Opinions and states of mind



Timetables and schedules



Examples :
o

The sun rises in the east.

o

Water boils at 100°C.

o

The postman usually comes before noon.

o

In France, people drive on the right-hand side of the road.

o

Our plane leaves at 10 PM on Thursday.

Present Progressive
Uses


Actions happening now



Future plants and arrangements



Examples:
o

I'm reading a page on the Internet at the moment.

o

We’re introducing new system

o

She’s meeting the CEO at 2 p.m

o

Prices are going up; the value of the Euro is going down.

o

I'm visiting my parents next Sunday.

PRACTICE:
Put the verbs between brackets in the right tense :
A•

Joan (1)

football every day. (to play)



Who (2)

on the grass? (to walk)



We always (3)



Who (5)



Jim says: "(6)

(to speak) softly while Mother (4)

. (to sleep)

to? (you, to talk)
to school now". (I, to go)

7



In the winter, the sun (7)



The church bell (8)



(9)



(11)



No, (12)

early. (to set)
for Mass every Sunday. (to ring)

(you, to listen) to me? (10)

to repeat myself. (I, not, go)

his name. (I, not, to remember)
; I am awake. (I, not, to sleep)

B-

1. It is 7.30 A.M. and

(I, to have) my breakfast.
(I, to have) breakfast.

2. Every morning at 7.30 A.M.
3. At the moment,
4.

(it, to rain).

(you, to watch) TV in the evening?

5. What

(John, to do) right now?
(you, not, to know) how late it is?

6. Quiet, please!
7. Look!
8. "

(the police, arrest) someone next door.
(you, to promise) to be on time?" "Yes, I promise."

9. What's that noise?
10.

(someone, to hit) the wall?

(you, not, to understand) what I mean?

CLook! It (to rain) ___________.
My father (to enjoy) ___________ watching gangster films.
_____ you (to like) ________ surfing on the internet?
Walter and his sister (to play) ___________ chess in their bedroom.
I (not, to want) ____________ to go to that party.
I can't help you now, I (to garden) ___________.
Dan (to wake up) ___________ at 7 everyday.
She is in her bedroom. She (to read) ___________.
How often _______ she (to go) __________ to the doctor's?

8

THE PAST SIMPLE TENSE:

Affirmative form
I looked

Negative form

we looked

I did not look

we did not look

Interrogative form
did I look?

did we look?

you looked you looked

you did not look you did not look

did you look? did you look?

he looked

he did not look

did he look?

she looked they looked

she did not look they did not look

did she look? did they look?

it looked

it did not look

did it look?

THE PAST PROGRESSIVE:

Affirmative form

Negative form

Interrogative form

we were

I was not

we were not

looking

looking

looking

you were

you were

you were not

you were not

were you

were you

looking

looking

looking

looking

looking?

looking?

I was looking

was I looking?

he was

he was not

was he

looking

looking

looking?

were we
looking?

she was

they were

she was not

they were not

was she

were they

looking

looking

looking

looking

looking?

looking?

it was

it was not

was it

looking

looking

looking?

Past Simple
Uses :


Finished past actions

9

Examples:


usually used with : yesterday, last night, in 1999, 10 years ago….
o

I watched the film on TV last night.

o

I saw that film a long time ago.

o

The vampire got out of his coffin and walked towards us.

Past Progressive (or Continuous)
Examples :
o

I was watching TV when the phone rang.

o

Dracula's helpers were moving his coffin to a new location.

PRACTICE:
Fill in the blanks with the right verbs :

1. It's 9 A.M.;

(the postman, to come) yet this morning?

2.

(I, never, to visit, Rome) in my whole life.

3. When I was a teenager

(I, not to see) that film yet.

4. No,

(to be) a lot of traffic accidents in this country.

5. This year there
6. My dog

(I, to play) football every Saturday afternoon.

(to run away) while I was walking him in the park.

7. My keys are missing:
8. I can't do it;

(you to see) them?
(I, already, to try) it several times.

9. When I asked him for time off,
10.

(he, to say) "No".

(you, to eat, ever) caviar?

10

THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE:

Affirmative form

Negative form

Interrogative form
Have we

I have

we have

I have not

we have not

looked

looked

looked

looked

you have

you have

you have not

you have not

Have you

Have you

looked

looked

looked

looked

looked ?

looked ?

have I looked ?

he has

he has not

Has he

looked

looked

looked ?

they have

Have they

she has not

they have not

Has she

looked

looked

looked

looked ?

it has looked

it has not

she has

looked

looked ?

looked ?

Has it looked ?

looked

THE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:

Affirmative form

Negative form

Interrogative form

I have been

we have been

I have not been

we have not

have I been

have we been

looking

looking

looking

been looking

looking?

looking?

you have

you have

you have not

you have not

have you been

have you been

been looking

been looking

been looking

been looking

looking?

looking?

he has been

he has not been

has he been

looking

looking

looking?

she has been

they have

she has not

they have not

has she been

have they been

looking

been looking

been looking

been looking

looking?

looking?

it has been

it has not been

has it been

looking

looking

looking?

11



The simple form of the Present Perfect is have/has + past participal



The progressive eform of the Present Perfect is have/has + been + verb in ing form.

The Present Perfect
Uses :
We use the present perfect tense to talk about past actions with present importance.


past actions with results in the present: ex: graphic images has had excellent results this year



life experience :ex: I’ve forgotten his name twice.

Examples :


Look! I've bought a new car



I've read Pickwick Papers



I've been to the doctor's this morning



I have been playing tennis since I was 7 years old



The Prime Minister has met the President

Practice:
Put the verbs between brackets in the present perfect:


1. I (to meet) ___________ her two years ago.



2. I (to be) ___________ very lucky lately.



3. _______ you ever (to be) ________ to Africa?



4. I (to live) _____________ here since 2000.



5. I (to go) ___________ to Mexico last year.



6. Mary (to love) ___________ chocolate since she was a little girl.



7. I (to see / never ) _______________ that movie.



8. He (to arrive / just) _______________.



9. James (to finish / not) _______________ his homework yet.



10. He (to tidy) ____________ his room, that's why he can go out with his friends.

12

Present Perfect Progressive (or Continuous)
Uses:
Past actions that re-continuing now:


I've been playing tennis since I was 7. / I've been reading Pickwick Papers.



He’s been working there for 5 years.

Put the verbs between brackets in the right tense :

1. It's 9 A.M.;

(the postman, to come) yet this morning?

2.

(I, never, to visit, Rome) in my whole life.
(I, to play) football every Saturday afternoon.

3. When I was a teenager
4. No,

(I, not to see) that film yet.

5. This year there
6. My dog

(to be) a lot of traffic accidents in this country.
(to run away) while I was walking him in the park.

7. My keys are missing:
8. I can't do it;

(you to see) them?
(I, already, to try) it several times.

9. When I asked him for time off,
10.

(he, to say) "No".

(you, to eat, ever) caviar?

Put the verbs between brackets in the right tense :

1. When I went to the car park, I found that my car
2. Peter
3. "Where
4.

(to steal).

(to live) in Paris for 4 years before he could speak French fluently.
(you, to be)?" she said when I finally turned up.
(I, to learn) English for 5 years now.

5. The locals were amazed because

(never, to see) a horse before.

6. They wouldn't let him in because

(to forget) his membership card.
13

7. "You can't come in because

(to forget) your membership card."

8.

(you, to see) the new film by Spike Lee?

9.

(they, to drink) a lot of champagne by the time the party ended.

10. They were angry because

(they, to wait) for too long.

THE PAST PERFECT ( SIMPLE)

Affirmative form

Negative form

Interrogative form

I had looked

we had
looked

I had not looked

we had not
looked

had I looked?

had we
looked?

you had
looked

you had
looked

you had not
looked

you had not
looked

had you
looked?

had you
looked?

he had
looked
she had
looked

he had not
looked
they had
looked

it had looked

she had not
looked

had he
looked?
they had not
looked

it had not
looked

had she
looked?

had they
looked?

had it looked?

THE PAST PERFECT ( PROGRESSIVE)
Affirmative form
I had been
looking

Interrogative form

I had not been
looking

we had not
been looking

had I been
looking?

had we been
looking?

you had been you had been
looking
looking

you had not
been looking

you had not
been looking

had you been
looking?

had you been
looking?

he had been
looking

he had not
been looking

she had been
looking
it had been
looking

we had been
looking

Negative form

they had been
looking

she had not
been looking

had he been
looking?
they had not
been looking

it had not been
looking

had she been
looking?

had they been
looking?

had it been
looking?

The past perfect (simple): had + past participle ( see the list of irregular verbs)
The past perfect ( progressive): had + been + verb in -ing form

14

Examples :
o

Ex. When Peter went to the theatre, he discovered that all the seats had been sold.

o

Ex. I had been waiting for 20 minutes when Paul arrived.

o

Ex. It was the first time we had met.

Generally it is used to form a link between two passed actions , where one is dated than the other.


It is 9 o'clock and I have been waiting for over an hour. ( present perfect)



It was 9 o'clock and I had been waiting for over an hour. (past perfect)

PRACTICE:
Put the verbs between brackets in appropriate tense:
1. When I went to the car park, I found that my car
2. Peter
3. "Where
4.

(to steal).

(to live) in Paris for 4 years before he could speak French fluently.
(you, to be)?" she said when I finally turned up.
(I, to learn) English for 5 years now.

5. The locals were amazed because

(never, to see) a horse before.

6. They wouldn't let him in because

(to forget) his membership card.

7. "You can't come in because

(to forget) your membership card."

8.

(you, to see) the new film by Spike Lee?

9.

(they, to drink) a lot of champagne by the time the party ended.

10. They were angry because

(they, to wait) for too long.

15

THE INFINITIVE FORM
INFINITIVE
Infinitive (active)

to clean

Infinitive ( passive)

to be cleaned

Past of infinitive ( active)

to have cleaned

Past of infinitive ( passive) to have been cleaned

Simple

Continuous

present

is cleaned

is being cleaned

past

was cleaned

was being cleaned

future

will be cleaned

will be being cleaned

Present Perfect has been cleaned
---------------Past Perfect

had been cleaned

EXAMPLES
Active

Passive

A sees B

B is seen by A

A is seeing B

B is being seen by A

A saw B

B was seen by A

A was seeing B B was being seen by A
A has seen B

B has been seen by A

A will see B

B will be seen by A

16

THE PASSIVE VOICE :
Uses :
Describing actions without saying who does them or describing processes.
Examples :


My car has been stolen



The company’s activities are divides into six business areas.



A new office block is being built in the city centre.



A new cancer treatment has been discovered by scientists in Sweden.



The suspect was questioned before being released.



Present simple: Ex. Football is played in most countries .



Present continuous: Ex. My car is being repaired



Past simple: Ex. The eclipse was seen only in the northern hemisphere



Past continuous: Ex. My hair was being cut when the accident happened



Present Perfect simple: Ex. The fugitive has been arrested



Future: Ex. A new version of Linux will be released soon



Infinitive: Ex. Computer discs should be defragmented regularly



Past of infinitive: Ex. My car must have been stolen; it's no longer where I left it .



Gerund: Ex. Most people like receiving presents



Past gerund: Ex. We were angry at having been deceived

PRACTICE:
Active

Passive

A sees B

B is seen by A

A is seeing B

B is being seen by

A saw B

B was seen by A

A was seeing B B was being seen by A
A has seen B

B has been seen by A

A will see B

B will be seen by A

17

Put the following sentences in the passive voice :
A1. Someone broke into our house last night.

2. They cancelled all flights because of fog.

3. Millions of people have read that book.

4. The police are looking for the missing paintings.

5. They should have told him.

6. Workmen were cleaning the entry to the museum.

7. He invited me to the party.

8. They have not opened the doors yet.

9. Somebody will deliver the package before 9 o'clock.

10. Nobody noticed his mistake.

B1. You must make a decision.
o

A decision

.

2. They will have to clean it up.
o

It

.

3. They are looking up the customer's name.
o

The customer's name

.

18

4. Someone ought to have told him that the meeting was at 10 PM.
o

He

that the meeting was at 10 PM.

5. We will clean your swimming-pool this weekend.
o

Your swimming-pool

this weekend.

6. This work was painted by Picasso.
this work.

o

7. The windscreen must have been broken by a rock.
the windscreen.

o

8. They must have been beaten by their rivals.
o

Their

.

9. We were forced to cancel the trip.
o

Something or somebody

.

10. The champion has been knocked out by a young boxer.
o

the champion.

19

THE FUTURE:

Simple future
I will / shall +
verb
you will + verb
he / she / it will +
verb

we will / shall + verb
you will + verb
they will + verb

Uses :


timetables and schedules



plans and arrangements



intentions



instant decisions



future facts and predictions

Examples :


the board meeting starts at 3.30 .p.m



when is he arriving?



We’re going to open a new sales office in Spain.



How many people will work here?

20

CONDITIONNALS:
Uses

Examples

Possible situations

if there’s a seat in economy, give me that.
If it’s 11 a.m. in London, it’s 8 p.m. in Tokyo.
If she bought a discount ticket, she won’t be able to change it.

Hypothetical situations

if I were offered a job abroad, I’d take it.
If we agreed to 5 per cent, would you give us 60 days credit?

COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES
Uses

Examples

Comparing tow things

this month’s sales are higher than last month’s.
The market is getting more competitive.
English car aren’t as reliable as German cars.

Comparing three or more things

it’s the cheapest product in the range.
Which city is the most expensive to live in?

Formation:
Short adjectives:

Much

Add -er or -est to adjectives with one syllable

use much to make the comparative

high

adjective stronger

higher highest

Cheap cheap
Big

cheapest

bigger biggest

21

Long adjectives
Use more or most with adjectives with two or more syllable
Modern

more modern most modern

Expensive

more expensive

Competitive more competitive

most expensive
most competitive

Watch out for these two irregular forms
Good

better

best

Bad

worse

worst

Add -er or –est to adjectives with two syllables ending with in –y
Easy

easier

easiest

REPORTED SPEECH :
Examples:
direct statement

Reported speech

"Mary is happy."

He said (that) Mary was happy.

"I want to buy a new computer, but I
don't know which one to buy."
"I am going to buy a car."
"It is cold in here; I will close the
window."
"I have lost my watch."

He said (that) he wanted to buy a new
computer but didn't know which one to
buy.
He said (that) he was going to buy a car.
He said (that) it was cold; he would close
the

window.

Note: would est le prétérit de will.
He said (that) he had lost his watch.

The majority of modals (could, might, must, ought, should, would) remain inchanged in the reported
speech. Only , can becomes could and may becomes might.

22



Study these examples:
Direct statement
I

didn't

go

Reported speech

to

school

on He said he hadn't gone (ou didn't go) to school

Thursday because there was a on Thursday because there had been (ou was) a
train strike.

train strike.

Direct statement

Reported speech

"Diamonds are more expensive He said (that) diamonds are (ou were) more
than pearls."

expensive than pearls.

"Computers have gone down in He said (that) computers have (ou had) gone
price."

down in price.

Direct statement

Reported speech

"France is bigger than Canada."

He said (that) France was bigger than Canada.

"Ireland

have

never

England at rugby."

beaten He said (that) Ireland had never beaten
England at rugby.

Direct statement

Reported speech

My boss said: "Finish that project by The boss told me to finish the project
Friday."

by Friday.

She said: "Please be quiet while the She asked me to be quiet while the
baby is asleep."

baby was asleep.

He said: "Can you pass me the salt?"

He asked me to pass the salt.

23



Find the reported speech of the following sentences:

Direct statement

Indirect speech

1. "I am tired."
2. "We often play tennis."
3. "I have two children."
4. "It is raining outside."
5. "I bought her a present
6. "I have just cleaned the windows."
8. "I will go to Peter's."
9. "I can swim very well."
10."You may come."



Find the reported speech of the following sentences:

1. "I have a toothache."
He said that
2. "I will open the window."
He said that
3. "She has gone on holiday."
He said that
4. "Go away!", he said to me.
He
5. "Where is my hat?", he asked me.
He
6. "We're going to the cinema."
He said that
7. "You have to do your best", he said to us.
He said that

24

8. "Who will you tell?", he asked me.
He
9. "They should go to the police".
He said that
10. "I don't know."
He said that

MODAL VERBS :
Modal verbs are special help verbs. They add extra ‘meaning’ to the main verb.
Most modals have more than one use:
Verbs

Examples

Uses

Can

can I use your phone?

Permission

Can you quote me a price for CIF New York

requests

Passengers can take a small bag onto the plane with them

possibility/ability

I can’t find my boarding card

inability

could I interrupt a moment?

Permission

Could you speak up?

Requests

We could ask for volunteers

suggestions

May

may I borrow your car?

Permission

Might

it might be possible to reduce the price.

Future possibility

Will

I’ll tell him to phone you back

promises

How many people will work here?

Future facts

There won’t be much space.

Predictions

would you speak more slowly please ?

requests

What would you like to drink ?

offers

Would like to come to a party ? I’d love to.

Invitations

What time would suit you?

Suggestions

Would you reduce the price?

Suggestions

Could

Would

25

Shall

Should

shall we ask for volunteers ?

suggestions

Shall I call a taxi for you?

Offers

What shall I do?

Asking what to do

I think we should teach the French sales staff English.

Recommending
action

The government should increase taxes on petrol.

Saying what is right
or correct

Must

passengers must make sure their bags are clearly labelled

obligation

Passengers mustn’t carry guns or explosives

prohibition

* Use a modal verb :
1. You _______ tell her! (prohibition)
2. She _______ come in. (Permission)
3. You _______ be quiet now! (obligation)
4. They _______ help you. (possibility/ability)
5. I _______ give you that book! (refusing)

ADJECTIVES :

adjective + V-ing

nom + V-ed

adjective + nom + -ed

nom + nom + -ed
adverb + V-ed

good + to look good-looking

That horse looks good. It's a good-looking
horse.

chocolate + to chocolate-

This sweet has been coated in chocolate. It's a

coat

coated

chocolate-coated sweet.

red-haired

That girl has red hair. She's a red-haired girl.

red + hair + ed
iron + fist + ed

iron-fisted

well + to dress well-dressed

His fists are like iron. He's an iron-fisted
boxer.
She dresses well. She's well-dressed.

26

Find the compouned adjective:
1. Lucy has red hair. She's a

girl.

2. The discussion has been going on for some time now. It's a/an
3. Paul has got blue eyes. He's a

discussion.

boy.

4. They don't sell new books at that shop, only

ones.

5. Marks's sight's not so good; he can only see things that are a short distance away. He's
.
street.

6. You can't go that way; it's a

7. Henry's been suffering for a long time. He's a
8. Jenny's twenty-one years old. She's a

patient.
woman.

9. You need a cool head to be an air traffic controller; don't even think about applying for such a
job unless you're

.

10. Successful models usually have long legs. They're usually

women.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS:
'Who' and 'which'
'Who'
Ex. The man who lives here is a scientist.
'Which'
Ex. The car which is parked outside is new .
'Whom'
Ex. The woman to whom you were speaking is a doctor.

'Whose', 'where', et 'what'
'Whose'
1.

Ex. The man whose car is parked outside our house is a doctor....)

27

'Where'
Ex. The town where they stopped was by the sea.
'What'
Ex. I believe what you said..
Ex. What you said is right.

PRACTICE:
Fill in the blanks with the following pronouns: (who/whom/which/whose/where).

1. Can you see the woman
2. The place

they met will always be special for them.

3. He gave Tom the book
4. The teacher,

are engineers, have just invented a new gadget.
father is a judge, is going to study law at university.

7. The person to
8. The hotel in
9. He found a wallet in
10. The footballers

he had just read.
met his class for the fist time last week, is happy with them.

5. Martin and Hellen,
6. Penny,

is sitting on the bench?

you were speaking is a famous hacker.
they stayed has a very good restaurant.
there was a large amount of money.
team had won drank a lot of champagne that night.

28

PRONOUNS AND POSSESSIVES

Personal pronouns

Possessive

subject

complement

Possessive

Possessive

reflective

pronouns

pronouns

adjectives

pronouns

pronouns

I

me

my

mine

myself

you

you

your

yours

yourself

him

his

his

himself

she

her

her

hers

herself

it

it

its

*

itself

we

us

our

ours

ourselves

you

you

your

yours

yourselves

they

them

their

theirs

themselves

Singular he

Plural

Reciprocal pronouns


Mr and Mrs Jones love each other.



They gave one another presents.



They looked at one another.



They looked at themselves in the mirror.

PRACTICE:
Put the right pronoun in the blanks :

1. John rang to say

couldn't get here before 9 p.m.

2. Liz and Meg were looking at

in the mirror.

3. "Give the book to Belinda." "I've already given it to
4. This house is mine; it's been in
5. "Look at

."

family for centuries.

, Mammy!", shouted the twins.
29

6. Richard and Liz looked at

passionately.

7. The guru said to me: "Think of others before you think of
8. Richard helped Liz look for

".

lipstick.

9. Membership has

disadvantages.

10. Liz kept her bouquet; Meg threw
11. The rabbi and

to the crowd.

wife finally arrived at the reception.

12. "This is our goal, that's
13. "Get off

! Okay?"

back!" screamed the angry employee.
into a bull.

14. Jupiter once changed

are delighted to accept your invitation."

15. "My husband and

16. "I hope you can come to visit my wife and

", said Mr O'Reilly.

Put the verbs between brackets in the right tense:

1. Yesterday,

(I, to see) a great film on TV.
(I, to open) the window?

2. It's smoky in here;
3. How
4.

brothers have you got?
I seen him, I would have told him the good news.

5. I don't know his number; I'll look it
6. Martin,

in the telephone directory.

is a policeman, drives a squad car.

7. We arrived an hour ago, and

(we, to be) here since.

8.

house is that on the hill? Is it yours?

9.

(I, to play) tennis since I was seven.

10. This time next week,
11. You
12. Last year, I
13. I don't know

(I, to lie) on the beach sunning myself.

visit the Smithsonian Institution; it's really worthwhile.
(=obligation) pay a lot of taxes.
he wears red shirts; they don't suit him.
30

14. Even

he's only fourteen, he can play Beethoven's piano concertos.

15.

people are coming to your party?

16.

I'm an easy-going person, it makes me mad to see so much waste.

17. The President

(just, to resign) .

18. It's my fault; I blame

.

19. She's strong, so she'll get
20. It


her illness quickly.

rain; it's entirely possible.

Put the verbs between brackets in the right tense:

He often (to go)__________ to the cinema with his friends.
______ you (to smoke)_______? No, I _______.
Listen! He (to have)_________ a bath.
She (to play)________ tennis with her brother now.
In 1970, he (to live)__________ in New York.
When the phone (to ring)__________, my mother (to cook)__________.
On Sundays, he (to wash)___________ his car.
Look! Vanessa and Dave (to quarrel)__________.
Every morning I (to get up)___________ at 6 o'clock.
Yesterday Walter (to do)__________ his homework.
Yesterday while I (to have)__________a shower, my father (to repair)_________my radio.
Tomorrow we (to go)_________ to London.
I (to read, already)____________ Othello.
She (to live)___________ in Paris since 1988.
What ______ you (to do) _______ at the moment?
Peter never (to work) _________ on Sundays.
When ______ he (to buy) _______ this car?
He (to leave) _________ last Thursday.
She (just / to call) ______________ him.
We (to have) _________ an accident while we (to drive) _________ to Paris.

31

WORD GAME
Put the following sentences in the right order
1. cat himself is the washing
2. can piano play the you
3. is nearest station the underground where
4. been ever have to Vienna you
5. cinema going likes Marian the to
6. do in not papers street the throw
7. a and at come have here look over this
8. away crime from he of running scene seen the the was
9. do hard is it know to to what
10. be be is not or question that the to to

32

I

MEETING PEOPLE
to meet foreign, contacts and get to know them

Objective

Tasks:

-

to introduce yourself to other people

-

to describe jobs and responsibilities

-

to ask questions about foreign companies

-

to read and write a personal profile

1) Do you know the other people in the class? Introduce yourself to everyone.
Good morning. My name is….. and I work for / in
2) Distinguish between a formal and informal situation
3) Works in groups. Practise making introductions, introduce:
a. Two people in a formal situation
b. Two people in an informal situation
c. Yourself at a company reception desk
d. Yourself to a new colleague
e. Yourself to a foreign visitor you are meeting at an airport

-

Use the following expressions:

May I introduce you to…?

This is…

How do you do?

How do you do?

Do you know …?

This is…

Hello/Hi

Nice to meet you

Good morning . My name is…… I have an appointment to see ….
I don’t think we’ve met . I’m…

33

LANGUAGE WORK
Getting information:
1- Four people are visiting your institute today. look at their business cards and ask and answer
questions about them.
What’s his/her name?
What nationality is he/she?
Who does he/she work for?
Where does he/she work?
What’s his/her position in the company?
SKANESBANKEN
BRIGITE SVENSSON
DEPUTY MANAGING DIRECTOR
NYBROKAJEN 7
S615146 STOKHOLM
TEL : 08 663 50 40
FAX : 08 665 40 55

CHEMA Y PUNTO SA
MARGARITA RIDAL ROMEO
Public Relations Officer
Paseo de la CASTELLANA 201 MADRID
Tel : 14312687 FAX : 14351314

BSCS

DEUXMONT FRANCE

DALE CROSBY

Technical Director

Business Systems Consultancy Services

JEAN-CLAUDE AUREILLE

Vice President
1049 Derwent SANTA BARBARRA
CALIFORNIA
Tel: 8059639171 Fax: 8059628593

132 rue Véron, 94140 Alfortville, France
Tél: 33143766281
Fax : 33143762924

1- Here are some answers, but what are the questions:
-

How do you do?

-

José Perez.

-

J.O.S.E

-

I’m Spanish

-

No, I’m single

-

IBM

-

They produce and sell computers

-

The financial department

-

I’m an auditor

-

English, Spanish and Italian.

34

( all these questions are in the present tense. For more information see page 5 in the grammar and
usage notes)

Describing Jobs:
1- Study the words in bold type in these sentences.
I’m

a financial controller ( a/an +job)
An engineer

I work for ATT

( for+ employer)

I’m in

( in+ type of work)

marketing
The chemicals
Chemicals

Complete this conversation. Use a,an,for, and in
A what do you do for living?
B I’m………….computers
A really? Who do you work………….?
B Olivetti. I’m ………….product manager. What about you?
A I work ………Balfour Beatty .
B so you’re ……the construction business?
A yes I’m ……..engineer
2- complete these sentences about yourself.
- I’m a/an…………
- I study in……..
- I’d like to work for…….
* Countries and nationalities:
1- Toshiba is a Japanese ( nationality) company. The headquarters are in Japan ( country)
What about these companies:
1- Honda

6- L’Oréal

2- IBM

7- Roll-Royce

3- Olivetti

8- Nestlé

4- Ericsson

9- Siemens

5- Norsk Hydro

10-Philips

35

2- complete the chart:
Country

Nationality

Japan
The USA
Italian
Sweden
Norwegian
France
British
Switzerland
Germany
The Netherlands

Speaking:
Work in twos or threes. You are participants at an international conference .Toss a coin to move.


heads : move one square



Tails: move two squares

Follow the instructions on each square and start a conversation. The first person
to finish is the winner.

36

You see an old

Name three countries

Ask another person where

Introduce two

Ask another

friend. Greet

which begin with the letter

they come from

people to one

person about

him/her

“B”

another

their family

Ask another

Name two

person about

countries where

their company

THE CONFERENCE GAME

you bow when
you meet
someone

Name four

Ask another

countries you

person about

want to visit in

their hobbies

holiday

and interests

Ask another

Exchange

person at the

business cards

conference

with another

what their job

participant

is
Introduce

Say “thank

yourself to

you” in three

another person

different

at the

languages

conference
You arrive at
the conference
hotel. Go to the

START
FINISH

reception desk

It’s time to go

Ask another

home. Say

person about

goodbye to your

the department

new friend

or division they

and register

work in.

Speaking:
Interview a partner about learning objectives:
1.

Why do we want to learn English?

2.

Who do they want to communicate with in English?

3.

what do they want to practice most: reading, writing, listening , or speaking?

4.

How many hours a week can they spend studying English?

5.

what equipment and materials do they have to help them learning?

6.

what equipment and materials do they want to buy?
37

II

TELEPHONING

Objective

To make contact and exchange information over the phone
-

Tasks

To spell and note down key words and numbers in a telephone
message

-

To make, agree to, and refuse requests

-

To respond to new situations and say what action you will take

-

To write business letters confirming telephone calls.

Starting calls:
Study these phrases for starting calls.
IDENTIFYING WHO IS SPEAKING

SAYING WHO YOU WANT TO SPEAK TO

This is Paul Henig.

Could I

Paul Henig speaking.

Can I

Is that Julia Gardini?

I’d like to speak to…..

speak to ………..?

Extension 596, please.
Supply the missing words in these conversations.
1 Ms Brunet

Sales Department, good morning.

Mr Keller

…………………Helena Steiner, please?

Ms Brunet

Hold on. I’ll get her.

2 Mrs Steiner

Hello, Sales.

Mr Keller

……………..Helena Steiner, please.

Mrs Steiner

……………..

3 Switchboard

Curtis Holdings.

Mr Keller

…………..293, please

Miss Delmont

Accounts Department.

Mr Keller

………Jean Delmont?

Miss Delmont

yes, …… How can I help you, Mr Keller?

38

Transferring information
1. Notice these different ways of saying telephone and fax numbers.
91430

6687

nine one four three zero

( American English)

nine one four three oh

( British English)

six six eight seven

( American English)

double six eight seven

( British English)

Exchange your personal end home numbers with a partner.
2. Work with a partner. Take it in turns to dictate telephone numbers and write them down.
29508-47766-966015-01525372245-03916600721

PRONUNCIATION NOTE
In phone and fax numbers, English speakers normally group the
numbers in threes, not in tows as in common elsewhere in Europe.
914306- nine one four, three oh six not nine one, four three, oh six.
3. When you transfer information by phone, try not to leave long silences or pauses. These
phrases will help you.
Starting

Ready?

Go ahead

Continuing

Have you got that?

Got that.

Finishing

Anything else?

That’s all.

Checking

Could you read that back to me?

Could I read that back to you?

Work with a partner. Take it in turns to give each other messages and write them down.
One person dictates and the other write down.

Phone Paul Carter
Tomorrow morning
(03) 408-441932

Fax exhibition dates
to vera in são Paulo
, 0055 11 223-3181

Send 200 pieces, ref no.
306/AJ
To the Siena factory
39

Requests
1. we use these phrases to ask other people to do things.

Can you…?

Could you…?

Would you….?

You’re on the phone. What do you say in these situations?
a. you can’t hear the other person;
b. you want them to repeat something;
c. they are speaking to fast.
d. you want them to spell a word.
e. You want them to transfer to the Finance department.

2. We can reply to request like this.

A
Could you... ?

Thank you
Thanks

B
Yes. Certainly.
Yes . Of course

Not at all
You’re welcome
It’a a pleasure

40

A

B

Can you.... ?

I’m afraid...
I’m sorry but...
Ok it doesn’t matter.
Never mind. It’s not
important

Practise these expressions with a colleague. Ask them to:
a. spell their surname for you.
b. Tell you the time
c. Tell you’re their computer password
d. Give you a lift home tonight.
e. Lend you their dictionary
f. Lend you some money.

VOCABULARY NOTE:
Put lend or borrow in these questions.
Could I …………….some money?
Could you……………….some money?
Notice we lend to someone and we borrow from someone. So when we lend, we
give; and when we borrow, we take.

3. we use these phrases to ask if it’s ok to do things.
Asking

Saying yes

saying no

Can I ………….?

Yes, please do.

I’m afraid………

Could you…..?

of course

I’m sorry but…

* yeah, go ahead
** Help yourself.
* informal

** inviting someone to take something

41

Practice with a colleague. You are in their office and you want to:
-

use their phone

-

smoke

-

look at their copy of the production plan

-

copy a file on their computer

-

borrow their copy of the Economist

-

borrow their car

4. who makes these request: a customer ( C) or supplier ( S)?
-

can I place an order?

-

May I have your name and company name?

-

Could you tell me the delivery address?

-

Can you deliver next Monday?

-

Could I have an address for the invoice?

-

Could you tell me how much it will cost?

-

May I have a discount?

-

Would you confirm this order in writing?

Work with a partner. Make up a conversation between a customer and a supplier. Use as many
request as you can.
5. work in pairs. One person sell computers. The other is a foreign customer who phones.
Answer his inquiries about your computer the NC-200. he will ask about.


your prices



delivery times



the guarantee



discounts



your terms of payment

Invent your answers. You can agree to or refuse his request.
Speaking:
Sit back to back with a partner and act out this telephone calls.
Call :
Your company’s new price list are still at the printers. You expect them to arrive today. A customer
calls with a request. Write down the details.

42

Writing:
1. We often write letters to confirm phone calls. Most business letters and faxes contain a lot or
standard phrases. Notice how some standard phrases are used in this letter.

FOTOTECHNIQUE
31, rue de Constantine 16102 Congnac Cédex
Téléfax: 45 39 16 11 Télex: 790 962F Tél : 46 39 29 24

Mary Thatcher
Sales Manager
Galaxy Computer Supplies
221 Hills Road
Cambridge CB 2 2RW
27 October 2004
START

Dear
With
I am
10 x
REQUEST

Ms Thatcher
reference to our telephone conversation today,
writing to confirm our order for:
photoconductors ref. No.76905 A/K.

I would be
possible.

grateful

if

Thank you for your help.
FINISH

you

could

deliver

them

REFERENCE
REASON FOR WRITING

a

soon

as

CLOSING REMARKS

Yours sincerely,
Cristophe Terrien
Cristophe Terrien
Director-Procurement
2. Use this list of standard phrases to complete the letters opposite.
The start

The finish

Dear

sir or madam, *

yours faithfully,*

Dear

Mr Sloan, **

Yours sincerely, **
43

Mrs Sloan, **

Best wishes, ***

Miss Sloan, **

American English

Ms Sloan, **

Sincerely yours,

Dear Mary-Lynn ***

Yours truly,

*

suitable if you don’t know the name of the person you are writing to

**

suitable if you know their name

***

suitable if the person is a close business contact or friend

The reference:
With reference to

Your advertisement in the Reporter,…..
Your letter if 25th April,…
Your phone call today,…

The reason of writing
I am writing to

enquire about…
Apologize for…
Confirm…

Requesting

Agreeing to requests

Could you possibly…?

I would be delighted to ….

I would be grateful if you could…?
Giving bad news

Enclosing documents

Unfortunately …

I am enclosing…

I’m afraid that…

please find enclosed…

Close letters with a friendly phrase or reference to future contact.
Closing remarks
Thank you for your help.
Please contact us again if

we can help in any way
There any problems
You have any questions.

Reference to future contact
I look forward to

hearing from you soon
meeting you next Tuesday.
seeing you next week.

PRACTICE
GEO ORT LTD
COMMERCE WAY LEIGHTON BUZZARD BEDFORSHIRE LU7 3BW
TEL: 01525 72245 Fax/ 01525 72611

44

Dear Mr Cochet,
----------------------your phone
--------------or not sending you
list. -------------, it is still
printers.
However, ------------a copy of
pencilled in.
--------------------

call today,
our price
at the
the old list with the new prices

--------------------------------------

Jacqueline Scott
Jacqueline Scott

GEO ORT LTD
COMMERCE WAY LEIGHTON BUZZARD BEDFORSHIRE LU7 3BW
TEL: 01525 72245 Fax/ 01525 72611

Dear Mary,
-------------------your phone call yesterday,
--------------to confirm that
--------------come and speak at the GMB
Congress in Manchester on July 13th.
-------------send me a map showing how to get
to queen Marys Hall?
-------------------------------------------..

Jacky
Jacqueline Scott
* Indicate the name of each step in the letter.

BUSINESS LETTER WRITING

Vitaplan ltd.
38 Bank Street
London SW1 4KD
45

20th November 20..
Mr J. Maréchal
Directeur Commercial
SOMAREX
6 RUE DE Paris
78000 Versailles

Dear Mr Maréchal,
Your name has been given to us by business colleagues in France, as an efficient market
research agency specialising in providing advice to UK companies hoping to export to France.
As you will see from the enclosed brochures and reports, ours is a medium-sized family
business with a range of products for the health food market.
Our immediate objective is to obtain first-hand information on the French market for these
products in general and for the breakfast cereal segment in particular. We would like
a thorough report on market size, competition and so on. The report should be ready within
six months.
Please contact us rapidly if you feel able to handle such a survey so that we can meet to discuss
the brief in detail as soon as possible.
Yours sincerely,
P. Simpson
P. Simpson
Marketing Manager

46

A possible letter
SOMAREX
6 rue de Paris
78000 Versailles
26th November 20..
Mr P. Simpson
Vitaplan Ltd
38 Bank Street
London SW1 4KD

Dear Mr Simpson,
We thank you for your letter of 20th November in which you express your confidence in our company
and are pleased to confirm that your proposal does indeed interest us.
Our market research agency already has great experience in the field you mention, since we have been
working for 12 years on the food sector and have already carried out three market surveys for English
firms. In order to discuss the finer details of the survey you require, may I suggest a meeting, perhaps
at your head office in London, at some time between 5th and 7th December. Please confirm the
convenient time and date as soon as possible with my secretary Mme Dubois (extension 459).
As far as the report is concerned, we should be able to provide an initial documentary survey
indicating market trends, potential competitors and health regulations within a fortnight. A more
detailed survey on consumer habits and possible retail outlets would take somewhat longer- between
four and six months – but we feel confident that we can meet the deadline you suggested without
undue difficulty.
Looking forward to our future collaboration, I hope to hear from you soon.
Yours sincerely,
(Signature)
J Maréchal
Sales manager

47

The business letter
Instructions
1.

There is no such thing as ‘business English’. In the past business letters were full of such
meaningless phrases as ‘esteemed inquiry’, I enclose herewith’, ‘We have perused’, ‘ I beg
to acknowledge’, ‘your earliest convenience’, ‘ I hope I may be favoured’ etc. You may
very occasionally come across bad letters written today which contain phrases of this sort.
Never attempt to imitate this style of writing. Your language should be simple and clear.

2.

THE HEADING This differs in one important detail from the personal letter. The name and

address of the person you are writing to must be included beneath your own address but
against the left-hand margin. This is called the ‘Inside Address’ and should be exactly the
same as the one which be appear in the envelope. If you writing to a man, his name should
appear as ‘Mr E. Jones’ or ‘E. Jones Esq.’ (Esquire). This latter form of address is in
general use and is usually preferable. When writing to ladies the usual title is used :
i.e. : ‘Mrs J. Robinson’ or ‘Miss J. Robinson’.
Very often you will not know the name of the person who will read your letter. In this
case you may address your letter directly to the company concerned: e.g. Jones, Brown an
Co., Ltd., (‘Co.’ and ‘Ltd’ are the usual abbreviations for ‘Company’ and ‘Limited’.) When
you are writing to a particular person in a Company or other organization and do not know
his or her name, your letter may be addressed to ‘The Manager’, ‘The Director’, ‘The
Principal’, ‘The Headmaster’, ‘The Secretary’, etc? as the case may be.
In business letters the ‘Block Style’ of address is becoming more common and should be
preferred.
3.

THE SALUTATION If the person you are writing to is known to you, you may begin ‘Dear

Mr-‘, ‘Dear Mrs’, ‘etc. In all other instances, you should begin ‘dear Sir’, ‘ Dear Sirs’, or
‘Madam’, ‘Gentlemen’ or ‘Sirs’ as the case may be.
4. THE BODY A business letter usually has four main parts:
Reference
Information
Purpose
Conclusion
(a) Reference you should begin your letter by referring to a letter you have received, an
advertisement you have seen etc., or to an event which has prompted you to write.
Here are a few usual phrases:
Thank you for your letter of June 3rd.
48

Many thanks for your letter of April 24th.
In your letter of May 22nd you inquire about….
It was a great pleasure to receive your letter of June 22nd that…
In replay to your inquiry of Oct. 21st , I regret that …
I read your advertisement in last Monday’s issue of ‘The Commercial Gazette’ and …
You may remember that I visited you last year when I wax in …
I was surprised to learn that …
I recently attended Hanover Fair and …
I recently called on your agent in this country to ask about … but he was unable to help me.
(b) Information In the second paragraph it is sometimes necessary to supply more
detailed information, which is related to the ‘Reference’.
(c) Purpose Here you must give the reason why you are writing your letter. You should state
clearly what you want. Take clear to answer closely the question that has been

set.

(d) Conclusion as in the ‘personal letter’ it is customary to ‘round the letter off ‘ with

some

polite remark.
Here are a few useful phrases:
I am looking forward to hearing from you soon.
I sincerely hope you will be able to help me in this matter.
I enclose the sample of the material you require.
I do hope I am not putting you to too much trouble.
I shall not act until I have received instructions from you.
I would greatly appreciate an early reply.
I enclose a cheque for 25 § to cover costs.
Would you please let me know as soon as possible whether you would be willing to …
I would suggest that you come and see me in person on …
I would suggest that you come and see me in person on …
Please accept my apologies for the trouble this mistake has caused you.
5. The subscription Where a letter is beginning. Dear Sir/Sirs/Madam, you must end with the
words ‘Yours faithfully’. When, however, you address a person by name – even if you barely know
him – you must conclude with the words ‘Yours sincerely’.
6. THE SIGNATURE Sign your name clearly In full in the way you whish it to appear on the envelope
which will be addressed to you in reply to your letter.

49


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